Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Antibiotic-resistant typhoid likely to spread despite drug control program

10.12.2013
Restricting the use of antibiotics is unlikely to stop the spread of drug resistance in typhoid fever, according to a study funded by the Wellcome Trust and published in the journal eLife.

The findings reveal that antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi bacteria can out-compete drug sensitive strains when grown in the laboratory, even in the absence of antibiotics.

Typhoid fever is transmitted by consuming food or drink that is contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria and the disease is linked to poor sanitation and limited access to clean drinking water. The disease can be treated but there is widespread drug resistance to common antibiotics and resistance to the recommended, more specialised antibiotic therapy for typhoid fever is increasing.

Researchers at the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Vietnam Research Programme, created twelve laboratory strains of Salmonella Typhi bacteria with one or more genetic mutations that confer resistance to the recommended antibiotic therapy for typhoid fever, fluoroquinolone. Typically, when bacteria develop antibiotic resistance it comes at a cost and when the drug is absent, they are usually weaker and less able to compete for food and resources than strains that are not resistant.

Dr Maciej Boni, a Sir Henry Dale Fellow funded jointly by the Wellcome Trust and Royal Society at the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam, who co-led the study, said: "When we grew different strains of Salmonella Typhi in the lab, we found that half of the antibiotic resistant strains had a growth advantage over their parent strain, even in the absence of antibiotic, enabling them to predominate in the population."

Dr Stephen Baker, also a Sir Henry Dale Fellow in the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, said: "Currently, the control of typhoid across Asia and Africa relies on treatment with fluoroquinolones but resistance is rising. Withdrawing or restricting the use of this class of antibiotics is one approach to try and combat the spread of resistance. However, the results of this study suggest that we need to think beyond this , as antibiotic resistance will likely continue to rise even if these strategies are implemented."

Dr Jimmy Whitworth, Head of International Activities at the Wellcome Trust, said: "These important findings from researchers in Vietnam are very worrying. If confirmed, one of our main strategies for controlling drug-resistance in typhoid will be ineffective. We will need to concentrate on developing more effective and affordable vaccines, and improving water supplies and sanitation, a Herculean task for low and middle income countries."

There are an estimated 21 million cases of typhoid fever around the world each year. If left untreated, it's estimated that up to one in five with the disease will die and of those who survive, some will have permanent physical or mental disabilities. According to a World Health Organization report, 90% of the world's typhoid deaths occur in Asia and the disease persists mainly in children under five years.

Typhoid infects the gut and bloodstream, causing fever that can reach temperatures of 39°-40° C and constipation or diarrhoea. The disease can be associated with other characteristics including, rose-coloured spots on the chest, confusion and perforation of the gut.

Jen Middleton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht The genes are not to blame
20.07.2018 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Targeting headaches and tumors with nano-submarines
20.07.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>