Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Alzheimer´s: disease-associated biomarker changes in cerebrospinal fluid of transgenic mice

18.07.2013
In the current issue of Science Translational Medicine, Luís Maia and Stephan Kaeser from the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research at the University of Tübingen and the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases report changes of amyloid-beta and tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are virtually identical to those seen in pre-clinical AD.

The new research suggests that AD in its earliest stage already causes changes in CSF-levels of tau and amyloid-beta and that these changes are both the results of the build-up of the amyloid-beta protein in brain, which is characteristic for the disease.

This study opens new perspectives on the use of these mouse models in translational research say the senior authors of the study Mathias Jucker and Matthias Staufenbiel. In particular, in therapy trials of sporadic and familial AD the mouse models should be instrumental to predict the CSF changes in patients. They also could help to discover new early biomarkers in CSF and other bodily fluids.

Processes related to AD start at least 10 to 20 years before the onset of the first clinical symptoms. At the moment of diagnosis, the disease has already caused severe brain damage. Thus, there is a critical need to characterize this pre-clinical stage of the disease and to identify patients at risk well ahead of any clinical complaint. This is particularly crucial for early treatment aiming to stop the disease before the emergence of irreversible symptoms and signs. Biomarkers could act as reliable predictors and indicators of a disease process. They offer one of the most promising paths, when it comes to early AD-diagnosis. Biomarkers include proteins in blood or spinal fluid, genetic variations (mutations) or brain changes detectable by imaging.

Very early biomarkers in humans that show changes at least a decade before AD symptoms are noted, can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the CSF the amyloid-beta protein is decreased while the tau protein is increased. The causes for these CSF changes have been largely speculative mainly because of the lack of useful animal models that also mimic these changes.

In order to tackle this point, the scientists first developed highly-sensitive methods to reliably assess amyloid-beta and tau in AD transgenic mice (these mice develop amyloid plaques, one hallmark of the Alzheimer’s pathology in the brain). Then, by assessing amyloid-beta and tau at different time points the authors could show that amyloid-beta goes down in the CSF after the first amyloid plaques appear in the brain and, remarkably, this decrease in amyloid-beta is followed by an increase in tau in the cerebrospinal fluid. The latter is notable, because the mice neither develop the second hallmark of AD pathology, namely the tau deposits, so called neurofibrillary tangles, nor global neuronal loss. Thus it is shown for the first time that the increase of tau in the CSF can occur independently of neurofibrillary tangles or frank neuron loss (as these do not occur in the mouse models used).

Citation
L. F. Maia, S. A. Kaeser, J. Reichwald, M. Hruscha, P. Martus, M. Staufenbiel, M. Jucker

Changes in amyloid-b and Tau in the cerebrospinal fluid of transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein. Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 194rexx (2013)

Silke Jakobi | idw
Further information:
http://www.hih-tuebingen.de

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'
16.11.2018 | Purdue University

nachricht Microgel powder fights infection and helps wounds heal
14.11.2018 | Michigan Technological University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'

16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine

Good preparation is half the digestion

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Microscope measures muscle weakness

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>