Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

When AIDS viruses are transmitted despite treatment

24.06.2013
While antiretroviral drugs offer an efficient means of preventing the replication of HIV in the blood, shedding of HIV may occur in semen, so that other persons can become infected during unprotected sexual intercourse.

This occurs in particular if the male genital tract also has other viral infections. That is the conclusion reached by a scientist who is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

In principle, modern combination therapies are very effective at keeping AIDS causative agents in check. The treatment usually leads to a situation in which there is no longer any evidence of Human-Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) in the body. In this way, the drugs can also reduce the disease transmission rate to just one tenth. So why do new infections occur despite treatment?

Sperm containing a cocktail of viruses
The answer, according to findings recently published(*) by the Swiss researcher Sara Gianella Weibel and her American colleagues, is that other viruses also play a role. Working at the University of California in San Diego, the SNSF-funded scientist studied the semen of 114 HIV-infected men undergoing treatment who have sex with men. She found that the seminal fluid of 11 of the men contained a considerable quantity of HI viruses, even though the viral load of the blood of all of the men was very low. In eight of these 11 cases, Gianella Weibel also found evidence of various forms of herpes.

Locally activated immune system
Some of these herpes viruses, such as cytomegalovirus, often remain unnoticed. However, if the viruses infect the male genital tract, they locally activate the immune system. As a result, there is a build-up of immune cells, including those in which HIV replicate, in the genital area. “Our data suggests that we must also direct our focus towards other viruses, if we really want to interrupt the transmission of AIDS,” explains Gianella Weibel.

(*) Sara Gianella, Davey M. Smith, Milenka V. Vargas, Susan J. Little, Douglas D. Richman, Eric S. Daar, Michael P. Dube, Fan Zhang, Christina G. Ginocchio, Richard H. Haubrich, Sheldon R. Morris and the CCTG 592 Team (2013). Shedding of HIV and human herpesviruses in the semen of effectively treated HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men. Clinical Infectious Diseases online. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit252
(Manuscript available from the SNSF; e-mail: com@snf.ch)

Contact
Dr. Sara Gianella Weibel
Center For Aids Research (CFAR)
University of California San Diego
La Jolla CA, 92093-0679, USA
E-mail: gianella@ucsd.edu

Abteilung Kommunikation | idw
Further information:
http://www.snsf.ch

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'
16.11.2018 | Purdue University

nachricht Microgel powder fights infection and helps wounds heal
14.11.2018 | Michigan Technological University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'

16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine

Good preparation is half the digestion

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Microscope measures muscle weakness

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>