Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and are projected to make an increasingly important contribution to public health burdens over the coming decades, especially in low- and middle-income settings.
While the UK has a comparatively good road injury record, with among the lowest rates in Europe, there were still 2,858 deaths and 26,066 serious injuries in the roads in England and Wales in 2006, and reducing this number remains a major aim of public policy. Over the last 15 years or so, in London, as in many areas of the UK, 20 mph zones have been established.
A team from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine have estimated the effect of introducing 20 mph traffic speed zones on road collisions, injuries and fatalities in London. They carried out an observational study based on analysis of geographically-coded police road casualty data, from 1986 to 2006. Overall, the introduction of 20mph zones was associated with a 41.9% reduction in road casualties, after allowing for underlying time-trends.
The percentage reduction was greatest in younger children, and was greater for people killed or seriously injured in collisions. Pedestrian injuries were reduced by a third with a greater reduction in children aged 0-15 years. The reduction was smaller in cycling casualties (17%) but again this was higher in children.
Chris Grundy, Lecturer on Geographical Information Systems at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and lead author of the study, comments: 'This study provides the most detailed evidence to date of the effect of 20 mph zones on road casualties and collisions in major metropolitan areas. 20 mph zones appear to reduce casualty numbers, especially serious injury and death, and suggest that the benefits are greatest among younger children 'In the context of the wider evidence about the health burdens associated with road injuries, this evidence supports introducing 20 mph zones in major British cities and also in similar metropolitan areas elsewhere. Indeed, even within London, there is a case for extending the currently limited provision of such zones to other roads with high numbers of casualties.'
Sally Hall | EurekAlert!
New players, standardization and digitalization for more rail freight transport
16.07.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
A helping (Sens)Hand
11.04.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation IAO
The Fraunhofer FEP has been involved in developing processes and equipment for cleaning, sterilization, and surface modification for decades. The CleanHand Network for development of systems and technologies to clean surfaces, materials, and objects was established in May 2018 to bundle the expertise of many partnering organizations. As a partner in the CleanHand Network, Fraunhofer FEP will present the Network and current research topics of the Institute in the field of hygiene and cleaning at the parts2clean trade fair, October 23-25, 2018 in Stuttgart, at the booth of the Fraunhofer Cleaning Technology Alliance (Hall 5, Booth C31).
Test reports and studies on the cleanliness of European motorway rest areas, hotel beds, and outdoor pools increasingly appear in the press, especially during...
The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma.
This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.
Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of...
Thin-film solar cells made of crystalline silicon are inexpensive and achieve efficiencies of a good 14 percent. However, they could do even better if their shiny surfaces reflected less light. A team led by Prof. Christiane Becker from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has now patented a sophisticated new solution to this problem.
"It is not enough simply to bring more light into the cell," says Christiane Becker. Such surface structures can even ultimately reduce the efficiency by...
A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.
Scientists established the new species, Thesea dalioi, by comparing its physical traits, such as branch thickness and the bright red colony color, with the...
Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.
21.09.2018 | Event News
03.09.2018 | Event News
27.08.2018 | Event News
25.09.2018 | Health and Medicine
25.09.2018 | Health and Medicine
25.09.2018 | Information Technology