Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Wound healing in mucous tissues could ward off AIDS

22.11.2019

Wound-repair capabilities preserve tissue integrity during early infection and might prevent inflammation that underlies immune exhaustion

Wound healing events in mucous tissues during early infection by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, or SIV, guard some primate species against developing AIDS, a recent study has learned. The research looked at why certain species can carry the virus throughout their lives, and still avoid disease progression.


Researchers measured changes in gene expression during SIV infection and found that activation of gene groups involved in wound healing decreased chances of progression to AIDS.

Credit

Michael Gale, Fredrik Barrenas, Jan Komorowski et al

SIV is closely related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is used as a laboratory model for many studies seeking AIDS and HIV cures and preventions.

Despite effective treatments to manage HIV, the virus remains a major global health threat. Approximately 37.9 million people in the world are living with an HIV infection. Each year about 770,000 people die of AIDS. As yet, there are no clinically available vaccines against HIV, or cures for the infection.

In this latest study, reported this month in Nature Communications (please see paper), scientists sought to uncover, in natural hosts, successful virus-fighting tactics that could inform the design of better antiviral drugs to treat HIV in people. They found that the biological events involved in wound healing of mucosal tissues create an environment inside the body that protects against the destructive consequences of SIV infection. (Mucosal tissues are part of the body's defense against germs.) Aspects of this wound-healing immune response could become targets for developing new therapies to prevent AIDS in people with HIV infections.

The multi-institutional study was led by Michael Gale, Jr., professor of immunology at the University of Washington School of Medicine and director of the Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, and Fredrik Barrenas and Jan Komorowski of the University of Uppsala, Sweden and the Institute of Computer Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences.

The research team combined data from their experiments and from other published studies to generate their findings.

To evaluate the virus-host interactions and immune response in the early stages of SIV and HIV infection, the researchers developed a systems biology approach - a way of representing and interpreting complex interactions - called Conserved Gene Signature Analysis. They also conducted additional types of bioinformatics analyses, which incorporate methods and tools from computer science, biology, math, statistics, information engineering and other fields.

As part of their study, the researchers compared virus host interactions and immune response to SIV, including gene expression profiles, from the African green monkey, a natural host for HIV, with those from an AIDS-susceptible species, the rhesus macaque. Similar data from human HIV infections was also evaluated.

"The use of public datasets were a key component of this research and highlights the importance of the scientific community sharing their data in public forums," Barrenas said.

The researchers explained that both HIV and SIV infect immune cells called T helper cells. These cells are abundant in the intestine and in specialized tissues elsewhere in the body. The HIV infection provokes an immune response that injures tissues surrounding the intestine. This injury allows the bacteria that normally reside in the gut to penetrate the tissue and invade other sites in the body. This causes further inflammation and damage.

The situation attracts more immune cells, some of which get infected with HIV. Others undergo a program of spontaneous cell death. Deterioration of the immune system and further decline of infection-fighting T cells can follow. If the infection progresses to AIDS, the syndrome lowers the ability to resist opportunistic pathogens and fend off cancer.

The researchers found that, in contrast, African green monkeys in the early stages of SIV infection quickly activate and maintain regenerative wound healing mechanism in their mucosal tissue. For example, in the monkeys, a white-cell mediated remodeling of tissue occurs. Some of the repair mechanisms, the researchers say, are evolutionarily conserved. One biological pathway, for instance, is roughly reminiscent of one observed in a salamander that can regenerate certain lost parts.

The green monkey's ability to activate mucous tissue wound healing, the research team found, interrupts the course of the disease such that the onset of AIDS is avoided.

"We think the regenerative wound healing process likely preserves the tissue integrity," said Gale, "and could prevent the inflammatory insults that underlie immune exhaustion, cell death and AIDS that happen due to SIV or HIV infection."

Gale added, "This maintenance of tissue integrity would be a valuable therapeutic strategy to avoid systemic immune activation and progression to AIDS. Our findings indicate that the use of therapies that stimulate the wound healing response during early infection could have a protective effect against disease from HIV infection."

###

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director (P51OD010425, R24OD011157, and R24OD011172); UW Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease ( HHSN272201300010C); NIAID Simian Vaccine Evaluation Unit (N01- AI-60006); National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Center for Research Resources, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, (R01 DK087625, R24-OD010445, RR025781, DK108837, R01HL117715, R01HL123096, R01DK113919, R01AI119346); Preclinical Research & Development Branch, VRP. Division of AIDS, NIAID, ( N01-AI-30018); DAIDS Reagent Resource Support Program for AIDS Vaccine Development, Quality Biological, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Division of AIDS N01-A30018); NIH Training Grants T32 AI065380-08 and AI065380-09, Swedish Research Council (D0045701), Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, and eSSENCE program.

Media Contact

Leila Gray
leilag@uw.edu
206-685-0381

 @uwmnewsroom

https://newsroom.uw.edu/ 

Leila Gray | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: HIV HIV infection cell death immune immune cells immune response wound healing

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bacteria loop-the-loop
27.02.2020 | University of Göttingen

nachricht Project on microorganisms: Saci, the bio-factory
27.02.2020 | Universität Duisburg-Essen

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: High-pressure scientists in Bayreuth discover promising material for information technology

Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered an unusual material: When cooled down to two degrees Celsius, its crystal structure and electronic properties change abruptly and significantly. In this new state, the distances between iron atoms can be tailored with the help of light beams. This opens up intriguing possibilities for application in the field of information technology. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Angewandte Chemie - International Edition". The new findings are the result of close cooperation with partnering facilities in Augsburg, Dresden, Hamburg, and Moscow.

The material is an unusual form of iron oxide with the formula Fe₅O₆. The researchers produced it at a pressure of 15 gigapascals in a high-pressure laboratory...

Im Focus: From China to the South Pole: Joining forces to solve the neutrino mass puzzle

Study by Mainz physicists indicates that the next generation of neutrino experiments may well find the answer to one of the most pressing issues in neutrino physics

Among the most exciting challenges in modern physics is the identification of the neutrino mass ordering. Physicists from the Cluster of Excellence PRISMA+ at...

Im Focus: Therapies without drugs

Fraunhofer researchers are investigating the potential of microimplants to stimulate nerve cells and treat chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, or Parkinson’s disease. Find out what makes this form of treatment so appealing and which challenges the researchers still have to master.

A study by the Robert Koch Institute has found that one in four women will suffer from weak bladders at some point in their lives. Treatments of this condition...

Im Focus: A step towards controlling spin-dependent petahertz electronics by material defects

The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.

Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

70th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Around 70 Laureates set to meet with young scientists from approx. 100 countries

12.02.2020 | Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Bacteria loop-the-loop

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

Project on microorganisms: Saci, the bio-factory

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

New method converts carbon dioxide to methane at low temperatures

27.02.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>