During the last 15 years, vibrational spectroscopic methods have been developed that can be viewed as molecular pathology methods that depend on sampling the entire genome, proteome and metabolome of cells and tissues, rather than probing for the presence of selected markers.
The main difference compared to established methods is that no morphological information and no staining reagents are required, since IR and Raman spectra solely rely on molecular and biochemical features that can be probed in a non-destructive way. Pixel by pixel, the inherent spectral signatures of the biochemical components of a tissue can be detected.
In a review article, a team of scientists from the Northeastern University in Boston (USA), the Institute of Photonic Technology in Jena, and the University Jena (Germany) give an overview on the present state of-the-art of “molecular pathology” provided by vibrational micro-spectroscopy. The authors introduce the methodological background and fundamentals and discuss results in the context of spectral histopathology.
Vibrational spectroscopy can be observed in both absorption (IR absorption spectroscopy) or in light scattering (Raman spectroscopy). Every molecule exhibits a distinct and specific fingerprint spectrum in each of the techniques that allows identification and quantitation of the molecular compound. For a complex sample, such as human cells or tissues, the observed IR or Raman spectra are a superposition of all the spectra of the individual biochemical components. Modern mathematical data analysis methods and computer algorithms are able to decode these complex spectral signatures so that the spectral methods are now poised to enter the mainstream diagnostic arena.
The authors report on a number of intriguing results, for example, how metastases could be identified in lymph nodes and brain tissue, and the primary tumor could be determined. Using the vibrational spectroscopy, the source of lymphocyte activation can be traced and different cancer types such as squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma can be distinguished without the use of morphological information. In addition, it enables the detection of early stage abnormalities of oral and cervical mucosa – useful for screening applications.Extremely promising for the detection of circulating tumor cells is the fact that different cell types can be distinguished at the single cell level.
(Text contributed by K. Maedefessel-Herrmann)
See original publication: M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljkoviæ, C. Krafft, and J. Popp; Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging, J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855-886 (2013) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbio.201300131/abstract
For more information about the Journal of Biophotonics visit the journal homepage.Regina Hagen
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
20.07.2018 | Information Technology
20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences