Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Turtle genome analysis sheds light on the development and evolution of turtle-specific body plan

29.04.2013
The latest study was published online in Nature Genetics

The Joint International Turtle Genomes Consortium, led by investigators from RIKEN, BGI, and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, has completed the genome sequencing of soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). These achievements shed new light on the origin of turtles and applied the classical evo-devo model to explain the developmental process of their unique body plan. The findings were published online in Nature Genetics.

The evolution of turtles is an enigma in science. Their distinct body design-with a sharp beak and protective hard shell has changed very little over the past 210 million years. As the smallest species of soft-shell turtles, Chinese soft-shell turtle was once commonly sold in pet shops. Green sea turtle is considered as the largest of all the hard-shelled sea turtles and is named because of the green fat beneath its shell. Its population sizes has been drastically reduced recently and it has been listed as an endangered species.

To reveal the evolutionary history of turtles and the mechanisms underlying the development of their unique anatomical features, researchers in this project sequenced and analyzed the genomes of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle. They found the evidence that turtles are likely to be a sister group with the common ancestor of crocodilians and birds from whole genome phylogenetic analyses. The turtles were diverged from archosaurians approximately between 267.9 and 248.3 million years ago, which coincides with the time range of the Upper Permian to Triassic period that overlapped or followed shortly after the end of Permian extinction.

In the study, researchers performed the brief research on genes may be associated with the turtle-specific characteristics, and found some olfactory receptor (OR) gene families were highly expanded in both turtles. This finding suggests that turtles have developed superior olfaction ability against a wide variety of hydrophilic substances. In addition, many genes involved in taste perception, hunger-stimulating, and energy homeostasis regulating hormone ghrelin have been uniquely lost in turtles. Researchers suggested that the loss of these genes may be related to their low-metabolic rate.

The consortium also investigated the association of embryonic gene expression profiles (GXP) and their morphological evolution pattern, based on ENSEMBL soft-shell turtle gene-set. By integrating RNA-seq technology, comparative genomics method, and mathematical statistical approaches, researchers confirmed GXP divergence during embryogenesis of soft-shell turtle and chicken indeed follows the developmental hourglass model. They also revealed that the maximal conservation stage occurred at around the vertebrate phylotypic period, rather than at later stage that show the amniote-common pattern.

To clarify the morphological specifications of turtle embryogenesis in late development, especially the formation of the carapacial ridge (CR), researchers investigated into CR-specific miRNA expression, found existence of tissue-specific miRNAs and involvement of Wnt signaling. Also they revealed the Wnt expression involved in the carapacial ridge (CR) formation of the turtle shell, researchers annotated all the Wnt genes in the two turtle genomes, identifying a total of 20 Wnt genes. Intriguingly, they discovered Wnt5a is the only Wnt gene expressed in the turtle CR region, supporting the possible co-option of limb-associated Wnt signaling in the acquisition of this turtle-specific novelty.

Zhuo Wang, Project Manager from BGI, said, "The genome-wide phylogenetic analysis of two turtles in our project, along with two crocodile genomic data additionally, makes clear the evolutionary history of turtles in diverging from other species and settles the disputes about the phylogenetic position of reptiles. The genomic analyses and embryonic gene expression profiles have been combined to reveal the fundamental evo-devo questions on turtle evolution and development. These works have been highly appreciated by the editor and reviewers. Besides the interesting story, the genomic data we released here will provide a platform for more scientists to initialize their genome-wide studies on turtles. "

Dr. Hongyan Zhang, Regional Director of BGI Tech Solutions Co., Ltd. for Japan, said, "The completed genome sequencing of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle give an important hint to uncover the development and evolution mechanism of turtles. This scientific achievement is a joint effort supported by BGI's advanced sequencing technologies and excellent bioinformatics capabilities, the profound basis research background of developmental biology from RIKEN, and other partners' great contributions. We are looking forward to having more collaboration with other scientists for better exploring the secret of life together in the near future."

About BGI

BGI was founded in 1999 with the mission of being a premier scientific partner to the global research community. The goal of BGI is to make leading-edge genomic science highly accessible through its investment in infrastructure that leverages the best available technology, economies of scale, and expert bioinformatics resources. BGI, which includes both private non-profit genomic research institutes and sequencing application commercial units, and its affiliates, BGI Americas, headquartered in Cambridge, MA, and BGI Europe, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark, have established partnerships and collaborations with leading academic and government research institutions as well as global biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, supporting a variety of disease, agricultural, environmental, and related applications. BGI has established a proven track record of excellence, delivering results with high efficiency and accuracy for innovative, high-profile research which has generated over 250 publications in top-tier journals such as Nature and Science. These accomplishments include sequencing one percent of the human genome for the International Human Genome Project, contributing 10 percent to the International Human HapMap Project, carrying out research to combat SARS and German deadly E. coli, playing a key role in the Sino-British Chicken Genome Project, and completing the sequence of the rice genome, the silkworm genome, the first Asian diploid genome, the potato genome, and, most recently, have sequenced the human Gut metagenome, and a significant proportion of the genomes for the 1,000 genomes project. For more information about BGI please visit http://www.genomics.cn

Further information

Bicheng Yang
Public Communications Officer, BGI, Tel: +86-755-82639701 or Email: yangbicheng@genomics.cn

Jia Liu | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.genomics.cn

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex

nachricht New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>