Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Toll-like receptors play role in brain damage in newborns

23.11.2011
Two out of every thousand babies are at risk of brain damage in connection with birth. Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have identified mechanisms behind these injuries, which could lead to better treatment and a richer life for the infants affected.

Roughly two in every thousand babies are at risk of suffering brain damage as a result of events before, during and after delivery. Infections in the blood or a reduced supply of oxygen and blood can lead to inflammation in the brain, causing injury. This type of brain damage, which is much more common in premature babies, can result in neurological problems such as cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and epilepsy.

Toll-like receptors

Researchers at the University of Gothenburg’s Sahlgrenska Academy have now found that toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system play a major role in the state of the brain in newborns. The discovery could lead to better treatment and a richer life for many children.

Key role in the immature brain

Research into TLRs, which was rewarded with this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, has previously shown that these receptors are involved in stroke-related brain damage in adults. The researchers in Gothenburg have now shown that TLRs are also present in the immature brain and play an important role there.

“By understanding the role of toll-like receptors in the inflammatory process following brain injury, we hope eventually to find more effective treatment strategies,” says Linnea Stridh from the Sahlgrenska Academy, who presents the results in her thesis.

Simulated brain injuries

Stridh and her colleagues used mice in their studies to simulate the brain injuries seen in newborn babies. They found that special TLRs contribute to brain damage following hypoxia, where the brain is starved of oxygen.
“An infection can activate these receptors, making the brain more sensitive to hypoxia, resulting in worse brain damage,” Stridh explains. “If these signals are blocked, the degree of brain damage is reduced.”

Barrier opened

In her thesis, Stridh also looks at a protein called occludin, which has the role of gluing together cells in the blood-brain barrier.

“Our results show that there is a reduction in occludin at a genetic level following infection,” she explains. “This can lead to the opening of the barrier, making it easier for inflammatory molecules and cells in the blood to get into the brain and cause inflammation.”

The thesis “Inflammation in the immature brain; the role of toll-like receptors” was defended on 11 November 2011. neuro

TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are found on both the outside and inside of cells where they specialise in detecting specific molecules from hostile microorganisms. When a TLR detects a microorganism, the innate immune system is activated, causing inflammation to destroy the microorganism. Research on Toll-like receptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in medicine 2012.

Bibliographi data:
Title: Regulation of Toll-like receptor 1 and -2 in neonatal mouse brain after hypoxia-ischemia
Authors: Linnea Stridh, Peter L.P. Smith, Andrew S Naylor, Xiaoyang Wang and Carina Mallard J.
Journal: Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:45
Link to article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uid...
For more information, please contact: Linnea Stridh
Telephone: +46 (0)31 7863377
Mobile: +46 (0)705 764718
E-mail: linnea.stridh@neuro.gu.se

Helena Aaberg | idw
Further information:
http://www.gu.se
http://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/27809

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Quality control in immune communication: Chaperones detect immature signaling molecules in the immune system
20.09.2019 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Moderately Common Plants Show Highest Relative Losses
20.09.2019 | Universität Rostock

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: 'Nanochains' could increase battery capacity, cut charging time

How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. If the battery runs out of these ions, it can't generate an electrical current to run a device and ultimately fails.

Materials with a higher lithium ion storage capacity are either too heavy or the wrong shape to replace graphite, the electrode material currently used in...

Im Focus: Stevens team closes in on 'holy grail' of room temperature quantum computing chips

Photons interact on chip-based system with unprecedented efficiency

To process information, photons must interact. However, these tiny packets of light want nothing to do with each other, each passing by without altering the...

Im Focus: Happy hour for time-resolved crystallography

Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Hamburg and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) outstation in the city have developed a new method to watch biomolecules at work. This method dramatically simplifies starting enzymatic reactions by mixing a cocktail of small amounts of liquids with protein crystals. Determination of the protein structures at different times after mixing can be assembled into a time-lapse sequence that shows the molecular foundations of biology.

The functions of biomolecules are determined by their motions and structural changes. Yet it is a formidable challenge to understand these dynamic motions.

Im Focus: Modular OLED light strips

At the International Symposium on Automotive Lighting 2019 (ISAL) in Darmstadt from September 23 to 25, 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, will present OLED light strips of any length with additional functionalities for the first time at booth no. 37.

Almost everyone is familiar with light strips for interior design. LED strips are available by the metre in DIY stores around the corner and are just as often...

Im Focus: Tomorrow´s coolants of choice

Scientists assess the potential of magnetic-cooling materials

Later during this century, around 2060, a paradigm shift in global energy consumption is expected: we will spend more energy for cooling than for heating....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Optical Technologies: International Symposium „Future Optics“ in Hannover

19.09.2019 | Event News

Society 5.0: putting humans at the heart of digitalisation

10.09.2019 | Event News

Interspeech 2019 conference: Alexa and Siri in Graz

04.09.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quality control in immune communication: Chaperones detect immature signaling molecules in the immune system

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

Moderately Common Plants Show Highest Relative Losses

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

The Fluid Fingerprint of Hurricanes

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>