Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The secret cargo of mosquitoes - Dirofilaria repens for the first time detected in Austria

27.05.2014

Until a short while ago, infections with the parasite Dirofilaria repens was regarded as a classical traveler's disease in Austria. Mosquitoes from abroad passed the parasite on to dogs, in some cases even to humans.

The most recent research data from the Vetmeduni Vienna have shown, for the first time that the parasite has been imported to Austria and established here. In mosquitoes from the state of Burgenland, the scientists found larvae of the parasite. The infected mosquitoes possibly migrated to Austria through Eastern and Southern Europe. The results of this research were published in the journal Parasites & Vectors.


The scientists use special mosquito traps to collect the insects.

Photo: Carina Zittra / Vetmeduni Vienna

The parasite Dirofilaria repens is a roundworm that primarily attacks the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and causes lumps in the skin, swelling, and itching. Dogs, cats, foxes, wolves and martens can be infected in addition to dogs.

"In humans, 16 cases of human dirofilariosis have been recorded since the year 2000, but the dark figure is definitely higher", says the lead author Katja Silbermayr. Humans, however, are so-called dead end hosts; the parasite does not reproduce in humans and therefore poses no major risk.

Silbermayr is a veterinarian and performs research on parasitic skin diseases. She emphasizes, "So-called cutaneous dirofilariosis is quite unknown among veterinarians in our latitudes. Therefore, through our work we wish to create greater awareness among medical experts. Lumps in the skin need not necessarily be tumors; they may be a sign of dirofilariosis. Only appropriate treatment or prevention can restrain the spread of this parasite."

Austrian-wide screening discloses dirofilaria in the state of Burgenland

Experts at the Institute of Parasitology investigated about 8,000 mosquitoes from the whole of Austria in 2012. They found Dirofilaria repens in two towns: Mörbisch and Rust at the lake Neusiedl. There were two different types of mosquitoes that carried Dirofilaria repens: Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles algeriensis.

"Basically these parasites are not choosy in selecting their vector or carrier, i.e. the mosquito. Throughout the world Dirofilaria repens is found in the most diverse types of mosquitoes. We may well be able to demonstrate these parasites in other types of mosquitoes", says Silbermayr.

The reason for immigration: traveling and adoption

The cause of immigration, according to Silbermayr, is that dog owners travel with their pets, especially to southern countries. The adoption of pets from abroad also spreads parasites into Austria. Global warming is, according to Silbermayr, no crucial factor in the spread of Dirofilaria repens.

The scientists believe that Dirofilaria repens will spread further in Austria. The parasite is already quite rampant in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia. "It's merely a question of time until it spreads further in Austria."

A related parasite not yet discovered in Austria

Dirofilaria immitis, also known as the heartworm, is a related but much more dangerous parasite. It is transmitted exactly like Dirofilaria repens by mosquitoes to dogs, and settles in the lungs and the heart. At these sites the heartworm, which is about 20-30 cm long, leads to heart failure, dyspnea, and general deterioration. This parasite has not yet been found in mosquitoes in Austria.

"To prevent insect bites we have preparations with a prophylactic effect, which are either applied as a spot-on to the animals' skin, or provided in tablet form. Once the parasite is in the animal, the treatment is usually laborious and long-drawn. Depending on the severity of the affliction, it may be associated with complications", explains Silbermayr.

The life cycle of Dirofilaria repens

The infectious larvae of the parasite are transferred to dogs by a mosquito bite. In the skin the larvae mate and form so-called new microfilaria, which then reach the dog's bloodstream. Mosquitoes in Austria absorb the parasite when feeding on the dog's blood and are then able to infect further animals.

The article „Autochthonous Dirofilaria repens in Austria“, by Katja Silbermayr, Barbara Eigner, Anja Joachim, Georg G Duscher, Bernhard Seidel, Franz Allerberger, Alexander Indra, Peter Hufnagl and Hans-Peter Fuehrer w Parasites & Vectors veröffentlicht. http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/226

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,200 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:
Dr. Katja Silbermayr
Institute of Parasitology
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-2211
katja.silbermayr@vetmeduni.ac.at

Released by:
Susanna Kautschitsch
Science Communication / Public Relations
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1153
susanna.kautschitsch@vetmeduni.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2014/...

Dr. Susanna Kautschitsch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Anopheles Vetmeduni larvae mosquito mosquitoes parasite parasites skin

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates
20.08.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates

20.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Metamolds: Molding a mold

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

20.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>