Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The oceans are full of barriers for small organisms

01.08.2016

Subtle and short-lived differences in ocean salinity or temperature function as physical barriers for phytoplankton, and result in a patchy distribution of the oceans' most important food resource. The new research from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at the University of Copenhagen may help explain the large biodiversity in the sea.

Phytoplankton are microscopic algae that live free-floating in the sea, transported around by ocean currents. The composition of phytoplankton communities affect other microscopic organisms, fish and even whales, as they constitute the base of the food web in the sea.


Small differences in salinity and temperature lead to the formation of weak and ephemeral fronts with different phytoplankton communities on each side. Researchers found that several species of the genus Chaetoceros (shown on photo) constituted the majority of the biomass on one side of the front but were virtually absent on the other side.

Credit: Niels Daugbjerg

"The oceans are full of invisible barriers that occur when temperature or salinity changes. Our new research shows that even short-lived barriers of just a couple of days or weeks, are enough to influence phytoplankton communities. This provides us with new insight into how the high biodiversity of phytoplankton is maintained and how the food web might be affected", says lead author and Postdoc Erik Mousing from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at University of Copenhagen.

In recent decades, researchers have increasingly understood how small organisms are separated by relatively permanent fronts in the sea caused, for example, by large ocean currents. However, this is the first time researchers demonstrate that short-lived changes in salinity or temperature also lead to changes in the composition of algae communities.

While it is known that physical barriers on land, such as rivers and mountains, can lead to the development of new plant and animal species over time, the oceans have primarily been perceived as a homogeneous environment. Therefore, it has been difficult to explain the large biodiversity of small algae.

"Our results show that the distribution of phytoplankton is much patchier than previously assumed as a result of these commonly occurring weak fronts. Coupled with the short generation time of phytoplankton the local barriers caused by these fronts could help explain why phytoplankton diversity is so large. Thus, at least in terms of the overall mechanisms controlling biodiversity, the terrestrial and marine systems are not fundamentally different", says co-author and Professor Katherine Richardson, from the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate.

In the study, which was published today in the Journal of Ecology, the researchers analyzed 30 samples of phytoplankton from 16 locations in the North Atlantic. They also measured temperature and salinity in different water depths. Based on the samples, the researchers were able to map out a front with different salinities on each side. The species composition of phytoplankton was significantly different on either side of the front.

"Although our results are based on samples in the North Atlantic, weak and short-lived fronts occur in oceans all over the world. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that the influence of these small scale fronts on phytoplankton is a common feature in the world's oceans", concludes Erik Mousing.

The study has been conducted in cooperation with the Danish ClimateLab, NASA and the University of Maine.

Media Contact

Erik Askov Mousing
Eamousing@snm.ku.dk
45-35-33-15-34

http://www.science.ku.dk/english/ 

Erik Askov Mousing |

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht An ion channel with a doorkeeper: The pH of calcium ions controls ion channel opening
25.06.2019 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Symbiotic upcycling: Turning “low value” compounds into biomass
25.06.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für Marine Mikrobiologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IDMT demonstrates its method for acoustic quality inspection at »Sensor+Test 2019« in Nürnberg

From June 25th to 27th 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau (Germany) will be presenting a new solution for acoustic quality inspection allowing contact-free, non-destructive testing of manufactured parts and components. The method which has reached Technology Readiness Level 6 already, is currently being successfully tested in practical use together with a number of industrial partners.

Reducing machine downtime, manufacturing defects, and excessive scrap

Im Focus: Successfully Tested in Praxis: Bidirectional Sensor Technology Optimizes Laser Material Deposition

The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.

Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...

Im Focus: The hidden structure of the periodic system

The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified

The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...

Im Focus: MPSD team discovers light-induced ferroelectricity in strontium titanate

Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.

Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...

Im Focus: Determining the Earth’s gravity field more accurately than ever before

Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.

The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

For a better climate in the cities: Start-up develops maintenance-free, evergreen moss façades

25.06.2019 | Architecture and Construction

An ion channel with a doorkeeper: The pH of calcium ions controls ion channel opening

25.06.2019 | Life Sciences

Cooling with the sun

25.06.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>