Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Testing a paleo diet hypothesis in the test tube

20.05.2014

By comparing how gut microbes from human vegetarians and grass-grazing baboons digest different diets, researchers have shown that ancestral human diets, so called "paleo" diets, did not necessarily result in better appetite suppression. The study, published in mBio® the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, reveals surprising relationships between diet and the release of hormones that suppress eating.

While Western diets have changed dramatically in the last century to become high energy, low fiber, and high fat (think: cheeseburger), our digestive systems, including our gut bacterial colonies, adapted over millennia to process a low-energy, nutrient-poor, and presumably high fiber diet. One idea about the current obesity epidemic is that appetite suppression systems that evolved to work with a paleo diet are off-kilter today.

The appetite-suppressing gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) can be triggered by the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. Fermentation of plant fiber in the colon by bacteria can produce these SCFAs, so it stands to reason that digestion of a diet high in plant fiber might lead to better appetite suppression.

Gary Frost and his colleagues at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom wanted to test that hypothesis in the laboratory using fecal bacterial samples from three human vegetarian volunteers and from three gelada baboons, the only modern primate to eat mainly grasses.

"Getting to the bottom of how our gut bacteria and diets interact to control appetites is vitally important for tackling the problem of obesity," said Glenn Gibson, co-author on the study based at University of Reading. Frost added, "Understanding how a paleo-like diet impacts the colon's microbiota and the signals those bacteria produce to release hormones that reduce appetite may give us new insight that we can adapt in the modern world."

The team established gut bacteria cultures in flasks and then 'fed' them two different diets—either a predigested potato, high-starch diet or a predigested grass, high-fiber diet. Then they tracked changes in the numbers and types of bacteria and measured the metabolites produced by digestion.

Surprisingly, the human cultures on a potato diet produced the highest levels of SCFAs. Even the baboon cultures fed potato produced more SCFAs than the baboon cultures fed grass. When the researchers applied some of these cultures to mouse colon cells in the lab dish, the cells were stimulated to release PYY hormone. Those exposed to human cultures digesting a potato diet released the most PYY, followed by those exposed to baboon cultures on a potato diet.

This evidence argues that the previous view of paleo diets and appetite suppression is flawed and that high-fiber, plant-based diets likely do not lead to increased SCFAs and increased appetite suppression. Rather, the researchers propose, little to no appetite suppression might help baboons maintain grazing all day to consume enough nutrients.

A closer cataloguing of all the metabolites produced by the bacterial cultures digesting potato or grass diets showed that as the levels of the amino acids isoleucine and valine rose, so too did the amount of PYY released. This relationship was even stronger than that with SCFAs.

"This hints that protein might play a greater role in appetite suppression than the breakdown of starch or fiber," said Timothy Barraclough, another co-author of the study. "More work will be needed to explore the effects of alternative breakdown products of various foods."

The researchers note that this study of digestion in the test tube is limited by not including the roles of gut cells, which absorb and secrete metabolites as well.

###

mBio® is an open access online journal published by the American Society for Microbiology to make microbiology research broadly accessible. The focus of the journal is on rapid publication of cutting-edge research spanning the entire spectrum of microbiology and related fields. It can be found online at http://mbio.asm.org.

The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of over 39,000 scientists and health professionals. ASM's mission is to advance the microbiological sciences as a vehicle for understanding life processes and to apply and communicate this knowledge for the improvement of health and environmental and economic well-being worldwide.

Jim Sliwa | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.asmusa.org

Further reports about: SCFAs appetite baboons bacteria bacterial colon fiber grass metabolites microbiology potato suppression

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists coax proteins to form synthetic structures with method that mimics nature
15.01.2019 | University of Texas at Austin

nachricht DNA library of apoid wasps published
15.01.2019 | Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

Im Focus: Mission completed – EU partners successfully test new technologies for space robots in Morocco

Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.

Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...

Im Focus: Programming light on a chip

Research opens doors in photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing and microwave photonics

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new integrated photonics platform that can...

Im Focus: Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in superconducting material

A team of experimentalists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and theoreticians at University of Alabama Birmingham discovered a remarkably long-lived new state of matter in an iron pnictide superconductor, which reveals a laser-induced formation of collective behaviors that compete with superconductivity.

"Superconductivity is a strange state of matter, in which the pairing of electrons makes them move faster," said Jigang Wang, Ames Laboratory physicist and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists coax proteins to form synthetic structures with method that mimics nature

15.01.2019 | Life Sciences

Next generation photonic memory devices are light-written, ultrafast and energy efficient

15.01.2019 | Information Technology

Viennese scientists develop promising new type of polymers

15.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>