Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Team learns how cellular protein detects viruses, sparks immune response

20.02.2009
A study led by researchers at the University of Illinois reveals how a cellular protein recognizes an invading virus and alerts the body to the infection.

The research, described this week in the journal Science and led by Illinois physics professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Taekjip Ha, settles a debate over how the protein, RIG-I (pronounced rig-EYE), is able to distinguish between viral RNA and self (or cellular) RNA.

“RIG-I is the first molecule in the immune response to detect viral RNA,” said Sua Myong, lead author on the study and a professor at the U. of I.’s Institute for Genomic Biology. Unlike most other proteins known to detect viral infections only in specialized immune cells, RIG-I is active in every cell type in the body, she said.

The RIG-I protein has two major parts: caspase-recruitment domains (CARDs) and an ATPase domain that consumes ATP, the cellular fuel molecule.

Previous studies had shown that the CARD domains actually inhibit the activity of RIG-I when no virus is present, but are vital to sounding the alarm and triggering an immune response once a certain type of virus has been detected.

Other studies had found that RIG-I recognizes an important feature of viral RNAs that is missing from most human RNAs. This feature, a “triphosphate” tag at a particular end, the “five-prime” (5’) end, of viral RNA, is a viral fingerprint that tells RIG-I that something is amiss. Detection of this tag starts a cascade of reactions that allows RIG-I to broadcast a message to other cellular components, and ultimately to other cells.

The researchers also knew that RIG-I was usually active in the presence of double-stranded RNA, not the single-stranded RNA found in most animal cells.

Earlier research had also shown that the central ATPase domain is critical to the function of the molecule. A single mutation in this region shuts down its activity altogether.

“We knew that the CARD domain was responsible for transmitting the antiviral signaling,” Myong said. “And we knew how the 5’-triphosphate tag is detected. But a big question remained about the ATPase domain: It was using ATP to do something – but what?”

To solve that mystery, the researchers used a technique termed “protein-induced fluorescent enhancement.” This method makes use of a fluorescent dye that, when attached to a specific region of a molecule such as RNA, glows with more or less intensity depending on its proximity to a protein that is interacting with that molecule.

Using this technique, the researchers found that the RIG-I protein moves back and forth (translocates) selectively on double-stranded RNA, and that this activity is greatly stimulated in the presence of 5’-triphosphate.

By requiring both the 5’-triphosphate and the double-stranded RNA for it to function, the RIG-I protein is able to very accurately detect a viral invader, said Ha.

Most cellular RNAs have their triphosphate tails bobbed, capped or otherwise modified before circulating in the cytosol of the cell, he said. “So this is one powerful way of distinguishing viral RNA from cellular RNA.”

Prior to this study, researchers did not know if RIG-I sensed both the double-stranded RNA and the 5’-triphosphate separately, or in an integrated manner, said Myong.

“Our work bridges the gap,” she said. “We show that it does both in an integrated manner.”

Ha is also an affiliate of the Institute for Genomic Biology and co-director of the Center for the Physics of Living Cells at Illinois.

Funding for this research was provided by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the National Science Foundation.

Editor’s note: To reach Sua Myong, call 217-244-5057; email: smyong@illinois.edu

To reach Taekjip Ha, call 217-265-0717; email: tjha@illinois.edu

Diana Yates | University of Illinois
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu
http://news.illinois.edu/news/09/0219protein.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>