Single gene regulates Casparian strip formation
Researchers at the University of Tokyo and Aberdeen University have identified the master switch for formation of the Casparian strip, a special structure in the root that plays an important role in nutrient uptake.
The Casparian strip is made of lignin, the main component of wood, deposited in a particular location (the anticlinal cell wall) in between endodermal cells in the root. By filling the gap between cells, the Casparian strip prevents harmful materials from entering into plants and also prevents leakage of nutrient from roots.
Although the Casparian strip was first described in 1865 by Robert Caspary and several proteins involved in its formation have been identified, the overall process remained unclear.
The research group of Lecturer Takehiro Kamiya at the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences and Professor David E. Salt at the University of Aberdeen isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with altered leaf concentrations of elements and identified MYB36, a transcription factor, as the causal gene of the mutant.
MYB36 turns on transcription of multiple genes involved in Casparian strip formation, leading to localized lignin deposition in the Casparian strip formation site. Furthermore, the groups succeeded in building Casparian strip-like structures in cells which do not normally form Casparian strips by expressing MYB36 in those cells. These results demonstrate that MYB36 is the master regulator of Casparian strip formation.
This discovery will contribute to our understanding of the control of the Casparian strip and its function in plant nutrient absorption as well as to developing crops with improved efficiency of nutrient uptake.
Casparian strip is made of lignin deposited between endodermal cells. MYB36 positively regulates genes required for both polymerizing lignin and locating lignin polymerizing machinery to the Casparian strip deposition site.
Takehiro Kamiya, Monica Borghi, Peng Wang, John M. Danku, Lothar Kalmbach, Prashant S. Hosmani, Sadaf Naseer, Toru Fujiwara, Niko Geldner, David E. Salt, "The MYB36 transcription factor orchestrates Casparian strip formation", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Online Edition: 2015/6/30 (Japan time), doi: 10.1073/pnas.1507691112.
UTokyo Research article
Euan McKay | ResearchSea
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences
19.07.2018 | Life Sciences