“Crowdsourcing”, the cooperation of a large number of interested nonscientists, has helped to find a new fungus from which American researchers have now isolated and characterized an unusual metabolite with interesting antitumor activity.
To date, fewer than 7 % of the more than 1.5 million species of fungi thought to exist have been investigated for bioactive components. To change this situation, a research group headed by Robert H. Cichewicz at the University of Oklahoma has prepared a collection of several thousand fungal isolates from three regions: arctic Alaska, tropical Hawaii, and subtropical to semiarid Oklahoma.The fungal extracts were analyzed and subjected to biological tests, including antitumor activity, by Susan L. Mooberry at the University of Texas at San Antonio. This resulted in the discovery of a number of interesting substances.
The researchers soon realized that the efforts of a single research team were insufficient to acquire samples representing the immense diversity of the thousands of fungi they hoped to test.
Therefore, the team turned to a “crowdsourcing” approach, in which lay people with an interest in science, known as “citizen scientists”, were invited to take part in the collection process by submitting soil samples from their properties. Crowdsourcing is becoming an increasingly important tool, giving research groups access to information and samples that could otherwise not be subjected to scientific study. Crowdsourcing has previously been used in a variety of projects, including the analysis of historic weather data and the classification of newly discovered galaxies.
Putting this approach into practice, the research team uncovered a new fungal strain identified as a Tolypocladium species in a crowdsourced soil sample from Alaska. The fungal isolate, which was identified by Andrew Miller at the University of Illinois, was highly responsive to changes in the way it was grown, leading to the production of several new compounds, including a unique metabolite with significant antitumor activity. This substance may represent a valuable new approach to cancer treatment because it avoids certain routes that lead to resistance.
To obtain this substance, a biosynthetic pathway that is not active under normal conditions was activated by the addition of specific chemicals, cultivation in a special medium, and in the presence of Pseudomonas bacteria. The scientists were able to isolate and characterize the metabolite they called maximiscin. Spectroscopic techniques revealed that maximiscin is a rather unusual structure, having been produced through a combination of diverse biosynthetic pathways unique to this fungus.
The researchers point out the essential roles that citizen scientists can play. “Many of the groundbreaking discoveries, theories, and applied research during the last two centuries were made by scientists operating from their own homes. Although much has changed, the idea that citizen scientists can still participate in research is a powerful means for reinvigorating the public’s interest in science and making important discoveries,” says Cichewicz.About the Author
Author: Robert H. Cichewicz, University of Oklahoma, Norman (USA), http://chem.ou.edu/robert-h-cichewicz
Title: Crowdsourcing Natural Products Discovery to Access Uncharted Dimensions of Fungal Metabolite Diversity
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201306549
Robert H. Cichewicz | Angewandte Chemie
World’s Largest Study on Allergic Rhinitis Reveals new Risk Genes
17.07.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Plant mothers talk to their embryos via the hormone auxin
17.07.2018 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
17.07.2018 | Information Technology
17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering