A team of Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) scientists report finding a molecular "switch" that can "turn off" some cellular processes that are protective against aging and metabolic diseases.
While more research is needed, the findings may open doors for new drug treatments to halt or slow development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes or heart disease. The research findings appear in the December 1, 2010 issue of Cell Metabolism.
Scientists want to better understand why some people – often those who are older, overweight, or obese – develop metabolic syndrome, a condition characterized by a group of risk factors, including high blood glucose, high cholesterol, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and increased abdominal fat. This condition increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and other diseases, including cancer.
Using genetically altered mouse models, senior author Chih-Hao Lee, assistant professor of genetics and complex diseases at HSPH, first author Shannon Reilly, an HSPH graduate student, and their colleagues focused on the role of the protein SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors) in the aging process. They found aged cells accumulate more SMRT and wanted to see if SMRT increases the damaging effects of oxidative stress on mitochondria, the cell component that converts food and oxygen into energy and powers metabolic activities. Oxidative stress is a cellular process that damages DNA, protein, and other cell functions and can lead to age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and atherosclerosis.
In laboratory experiments, Reilly, Lee, and colleagues found that in older animals SMRT acts like a "switch," turning off the protective cellular activities of proteins known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPARs help regulate genes that promote fat burning to maintain lipid (blood fat) balance and reduce oxidative stress. The researchers were able to reduce the negative effects of oxidative stress by giving antioxidants or drugs known to turn the protective activities of PPARs back on.
The scientists knew that oxidative damage causes the body to age. What they did not know is why aged cells have more oxidative damage. "The significance of our study is that we show SMRT facilitates this process," Lee said. "In other words, the normal metabolic homeostasis is maintained, in part, by PPARs. SMRT acts as a metabolic switch to turn off PPAR activities when the cells age."
PPAR drugs have been used to increase insulin sensitivity and lower blood lipid levels. "Our study shows PPARs might also be used to boost the body's ability to handle oxidative stress," Lee said.
"With what we have learned, we believe SMRT is one of the key players that causes age-dependent decline in mitochondrial function by blocking PPAR activity, and we've found a way to boost the body's ability to better handle metabolic and oxidative stress," Lee said. "This finding is significant since increased oxidative stress, coupled with reduced metabolic function, contributes to the aging process and the development of age-related metabolic diseases."
In collaboration with epidemiologists at HSPH, the team found genetic variations in the human SMRT gene that are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. "Through this study we were able to validate that our findings in the animal model apply to human diseases," Lee said.
Support for the study was from the National Institutes of Health as well as from the American Diabetes Association and American Heart Association. Lee received a Career Incubator Fund from HSPH that also supported the work.
"Nuclear Receptor Corepressor SMRT Regulates Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism and Mediates Aging-Related Metabolic Deterioration," Shannon M. Reilly, Prerna Bhargava, Sihao Liu, Matthew R. Gangl, Cem Gorgun, Russell R. Nofsinger, Ronald M. Evans, Lu Qi, Frank Hu, Chih-Hao Lee. Cell Metabolism, December 2010.
Visit the HSPH website for the latest news, press releases and multimedia offerings.
Harvard School of Public Health (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu) is dedicated to advancing the public's health through learning, discovery, and communication. More than 400 faculty members are engaged in teaching and training the 1,000-plus student body in a broad spectrum of disciplines crucial to the health and well being of individuals and populations around the world. Programs and projects range from the molecular biology of AIDS vaccines to the epidemiology of cancer; from risk analysis to violence prevention; from maternal and children's health to quality of care measurement; from health care management to international health and human rights. For more information on the school visit: http://www.hsph.harvard.eduHSPH on Twitter: http://twitter.com/HarvardHSPH
Marjorie Dwyer | EurekAlert!
Researchers target protein that protects bacteria's DNA 'recipes'
21.08.2018 | University of Rochester
Protein interaction helps Yersinia cause disease
21.08.2018 | Schwedischer Forschungsrat - The Swedish Research Council
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
21.08.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
21.08.2018 | Life Sciences
21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering