New insights into the mechanisms of changes in red blood cells subjected to various types of effects will help to develop optimal treatment regimens for patients with atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and arterial hypertension
Various stress effects make an integral part of modern life, and their minimization is of particular relevance. Currently, much attention is being paid to the study of the structural-metabolic and functional status of erythrocytes, since they serve as a kind of "cell dosimeter" to signal stress reactions and the action of facultative and obligatory exogenous and endogenous factors that cause various diseases.
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) make up about 40-45% of the total blood volume of an adult. They are among the most numerous cells in the human body accounting for approximately 10% of the total cell volume of an adult organism. Under the action of oxidative stress, somatic shock, various medicinal substances, xenobiotics and pathologies, erythrocytes may be subjected to damage that triggers their programmed death (eryptosis).
The deterioration of the erythron state plays a significant role not only in the specific gas transport function, but also in the regulation of the acid-base state, the water-electrolyte balance, the micro-rheological status of the blood, in immune reactions, in the binding and transfer of infection agents and medicinal substances.
According to Anna Deryugina, Head of Department of Physiology and Anatomy at the Institute of Biology and Biomedicine, Lobachevsky University of Nizhny Novgorod, the study of the state of erythrocytes and early diagnosis of their changes is very important for analyzing the state of microcirculation.
Microvasculature disorders are characteristic of a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and arterial hypertension. Further understanding of the mechanisms behind the changes in the state of erythrocytes under various types of effects will enable the development of optimal treatment regimens for patients and the implementation of timely preventive measures.
A group of scientists from Nizhny Novgorod and Yekaterinburg is currently searching for new methods to analyze the state of cells. One of the promising modern approaches allowing a detailed study of the morphological and functional state of cells is the method of phase-modulation laser interference microscopy, which is used to study the dynamics of changes in the shape of the cell and its structure, as well as the functional state of erythrocytes.
"In our studies, visualization of erythrocytes using phase-modulation laser interference microscopy showed a change in the erythrocyte nanostructure under stress, which was accompanied by the emergence of morphologically altered cells. By constructing phase pictures of erythrocytes (3D models), we were able to estimate the intensity level of oxidative processes, which are inevitable companions of stress," notes Anna Deryugina.
In the course of the research, the relationship between changes in the erythrocyte morphology and modification of the membrane protein-lipid structure was shown, which manifested itself in a change in the electronegativity of the erythrocyte surface. In turn, the analysis of the electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes, depending on the direction of the process, made it possible to judge about the development of stress with an increase in cytotoxicity or about adaptive changes in the body with genetic damage repair.
"Thus, the analysis of the electrokinetic characteristics of erythrocytes and their visualization can provide a diagnostic criterion for the homeostasis of the organism as a whole. In other words, by using phase-modulation laser interference microscopy, one can quickly visualize membrane deformations and evaluate the state of the cells. This method can be used to diagnose and study the functioning of erythrocytes," concludes Anna Deryugina.
Scientists note that erythrocyte visualization can become a form of rapid diagnosis of the body's condition that can be used successfully in clinical laboratories.
Nikita Avralev | EurekAlert!
A study demonstrates that p38 protein regulates the formation of new blood vessels
17.07.2019 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)
For bacteria, the neighbors co-determine which cell dies first: The physiology of survival
17.07.2019 | Technische Universität München
Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.
Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...
For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.
Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...
An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".
The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...
An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has built platinum nanoparticles for catalysis in fuel cells: The new size-optimized catalysts are twice as good as the best process commercially available today.
Fuel cells may well replace batteries as the power source for electric cars. They consume hydrogen, a gas which could be produced for example using surplus...
The fly agaric with its red hat is perhaps the most evocative of the diverse and variously colored mushroom species. Hitherto, the purpose of these colors was...
24.06.2019 | Event News
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
17.07.2019 | Earth Sciences
17.07.2019 | Information Technology
17.07.2019 | Materials Sciences