Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers grow retinal nerve cells in the lab

01.12.2015

Work could eventually lead to cell transplants for people blinded by glaucoma, MS

Johns Hopkins researchers have developed a method to efficiently turn human stem cells into retinal ganglion cells, the type of nerve cells located within the retina that transmit visual signals from the eye to the brain. Death and dysfunction of these cells cause vision loss in conditions like glaucoma and multiple sclerosis.


Fluorescence microscopy: Human retinal ganglion cells are shown at day 50.

Courtesy of Johns Hopkins Medicine; image provided by Valentin Sluch

"Our work could lead not only to a better understanding of the biology of the optic nerve, but also to a cell-based human model that could be used to discover drugs that stop or treat blinding conditions," says study leader Donald Zack, M.D., Ph.D., the Guerrieri Family Professor of Ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "And, eventually it could lead to the development of cell transplant therapies that restore vision in patients with glaucoma and MS."

The laboratory process, described in the journal Scientific Reports, entails genetically modifying a line of human embryonic stem cells to become fluorescent upon their differentiation to retinal ganglion cells, and then using that cell line for development of new differentiation methods and characterization of the resulting cells.

Using a genome editing laboratory tool called CRISPR-Cas9, investigators inserted a fluorescent protein gene into the stem cells' DNA. This red fluorescent protein would be expressed only if another gene was also expressed, a gene named BRN3B (POU4F2). BRN3B is expressed by mature retinal ganglion cells, so once a cell differentiated into a retinal ganglion cell, it would appear red under a microscope.

Next, they used a technique called fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate out the newly differentiated retinal ganglion cells from a mixture of different cells into a highly purified cell population for study. The cells showed biological and physical properties seen in retinal ganglion cells produced naturally, says Zack.

Researchers also found that adding a naturally occurring plant chemical called forskolin on the first day of the process helped improve the cells' efficiency of becoming retinal ganglion cells. The researchers caution that forskolin, which is also widely available as a weight loss and muscle building supplement and is touted as an herbal treatment for a variety of disorders, is not scientifically proven safe or effective for treatment or prevention of blindness or any other disorder.

"By the 30th day of culture, there were obvious clumps of fluorescent cells visible under the microscope," says lead author Valentin Sluch, Ph.D., a former Johns Hopkins biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology student and now a postdoctoral scholar working at Novartis, a pharmaceutical company. Sluch completed this research at Johns Hopkins before transitioning to Novartis.

"I was very excited when it first worked," Sluch says. "I just jumped up from the microscope and ran [to get a colleague]. It seems we can now isolate the cells and study them in a pure culture, which is something that wasn't possible before."

"We really see this as just the beginning," adds Zack. In follow-up studies using CRISPR, his lab is looking to find other genes that are important for ganglion cell survival and function. "We hope that these cells can eventually lead to new treatments for glaucoma and other forms of optic nerve disease."

To use these cells to develop new treatments for MS, Zack is working with Peter Calabresi, M.D., professor of neurology and director of the Johns Hopkins Multiple Sclerosis Center.

###

This work was completed through the Wilmer Eye Institute's Glaucoma Center of Excellence and its Stem Cell Ocular Regenerative Medicine Center, of which Zack is co-director.

Study co-authors were Chung-ha Davis, Vinod Ranganathan, Kellin Krick, Russ Martin, Cynthia Berlinicke, Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong and Hai-Quan Mao of Johns Hopkins; and Jeffrey Diamond and Justin Kerr of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

This work was supported by grants from the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund under grant number 2014-MSCRFI-0774; the National Institutes of Health under grant numbers T32-90040730, 1RO1EY02268001, 5T32EY007143, 5P30EY001765 and R01EY023754; and unrestricted funds from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc., the Guerreri Family Foundation, and Mr. and Mrs. Robert and Clarice Smith.

Marin Hedin | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Hopkins researchers ID neurotransmitter that helps cancers progress
26.04.2019 | Johns Hopkins Medicine

nachricht Trigger region found for absence epileptic seizures
25.04.2019 | RIKEN

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unprecedented insight into two-dimensional magnets using diamond quantum sensors

For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. They used diamond quantum sensors to determine the strength of the magnetization of individual atomic layers of the material chromium triiodide. In addition, they found a long-sought explanation for the unusual magnetic properties of the material. The journal Science has published the findings.

The use of atomically thin, two-dimensional van der Waals materials promises innovations in numerous fields in science and technology. Scientists around the...

Im Focus: Full speed ahead for SmartEEs at Automotive Interiors Expo 2019

Flexible, organic and printed electronics conquer everyday life. The forecasts for growth promise increasing markets and opportunities for the industry. In Europe, top institutions and companies are engaged in research and further development of these technologies for tomorrow's markets and applications. However, access by SMEs is difficult. The European project SmartEEs - Smart Emerging Electronics Servicing works on the establishment of a European innovation network, which supports both the access to competences as well as the support of the enterprises with the assumption of innovations and the progress up to the commercialization.

It surrounds us and almost unconsciously accompanies us through everyday life - printed electronics. It starts with smart labels or RFID tags in clothing, we...

Im Focus: Energy-saving new LED phosphor

The human eye is particularly sensitive to green, but less sensitive to blue and red. Chemists led by Hubert Huppertz at the University of Innsbruck have now developed a new red phosphor whose light is well perceived by the eye. This increases the light yield of white LEDs by around one sixth, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of lighting systems.

Light emitting diodes or LEDs are only able to produce light of a certain colour. However, white light can be created using different colour mixing processes.

Im Focus: Quantum gas turns supersolid

Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences report in Physical Review X on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. In the dysprosium gas these properties are unprecedentedly long-lived. This sets the stage for future investigations into the nature of this exotic phase of matter.

Supersolidity is a paradoxical state where the matter is both crystallized and superfluid. Predicted 50 years ago, such a counter-intuitive phase, featuring...

Im Focus: Explosion on Jupiter-sized star 10 times more powerful than ever seen on our sun

A stellar flare 10 times more powerful than anything seen on our sun has burst from an ultracool star almost the same size as Jupiter

  • Coolest and smallest star to produce a superflare found
  • Star is a tenth of the radius of our Sun
  • Researchers led by University of Warwick could only see...
All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

Fraunhofer FHR at the IEEE Radar Conference 2019 in Boston, USA

09.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers discover surprising quantum effect in hard disk drive material

26.04.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Hopkins researchers ID neurotransmitter that helps cancers progress

26.04.2019 | Life Sciences

Unprecedented insight into two-dimensional magnets using diamond quantum sensors

26.04.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>