Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers Dig Through the Gene Bank to Uncover the Roots of the Evolutionary Tree

27.07.2012
Ever since Darwin first published The Origin of the Species, scientists have been striving to identify a last universal common ancestor of all living species.

Paleontological, biochemical, and genomic studies have produced conflicting versions of the evolutionary tree. Now a team of researchers, led by a professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo and including area high school students, has developed a novel method to search the vast archives of known gene sequences to identify and compare similar proteins across the many kingdoms of life.

Using the comparisons to quantify the evolutionary closeness of different species, the researchers have identified Actinobacteria, a group of single membrane bacteria that include common soil and water life forms, as the base of the evolutionary tree. They will present their findings at the annual meeting of the American Crystallographic Association (ACA), held July 28 – Aug. 1 in Boston, Mass.

“Today the gene banks are enormous. They contain more than 600,000 genes from the genomes of more than 6,000 species,” says William Duax, a physical chemist and lead researcher on the team. However, many of the gene sequences, and the proteins they encode, are not systematically identified. Proteins that are structurally similar and perform the same function could be labeled with different numbers that obscure the fact that they belong to the same protein family. “Our first challenge is to make sure that we are comparing apples to apples and oranges to oranges,” says Duax.

Duax and his team have developed efficient ways to search through the gene banks looking for all copies of the same family of protein. They concentrated their efforts on proteins that are found on the surface of cell components called ribosomes. The ribosomal proteins are among the most accurately identified proteins, and because they are not transferred between individuals independent of reproduction, are good candidates for tracing the evolution of all species.

Ribosomal proteins in the same family twist into the same shape. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines what 3D structure it folds into and Duax and his colleagues identified patterns that marked specific types of turns. They used these marker sequences to identify and almost perfectly align the proteins, similar to the way you could use five points to identify the shape of a star and align its orientation to match other star shapes.

Structurally aligning the proteins allowed the researchers to easily spot small differences that indicate organisms belong on different branches of the evolutionary tree. For example, a single amino acid difference in one ribosomal protein separates bacteria with one cell membrane from those with two.

At the ACA meeting, the researchers will present the results from the analysis of two different ribosomal protein families, called S19 and S13. Duax will present the analysis of protein S19, while high school student Alexander Merriman will present analysis of protein S13. Merriman joined Duax’s lab through a scientific mentorship program designed to give teenagers hands-on experience with cutting-edge research. “They are enthusiastic researchers and do great work,” Duax says of the students he welcomes into his lab each Friday.

Both analyses point to Actinobacteria as the last universal common ancestor. This agrees with previous work done by the group on proteins named S9 and S12.

The researchers will continue to search for more evidence to add to their developing picture of the evolutionary tree. The group plans to analyze additional proteins, as well as DNA and RNA. “We are applying a systematic approach to make sense of a sometimes messy gene bank,” says Duax.

This news release was prepared for the American Crystallographic Association (ACA) by the American Institute of Physics (AIP).

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE 2012 ACA MEETING
The ACA is the largest professional society for crystallography in the United States, and this is its main meeting. All scientific sessions, workshops, poster sessions, and events will be held at the Westin Waterfront Hotel in Boston, Mass.
USEFUL LINKS:
Main meeting website: http://www.amercrystalassn.org/2012-meeting-homepage
Meeting program: http://www.amercrystalassn.org/2012-tentative-program
Meeting abstracts: http://www.amercrystalassn.org/app/sessions
Exhibits: http://www.amercrystalassn.org/2012-exhibits
ABOUT ACA
The American Crystallographic Association (ACA) was founded in 1949 through a merger of the American Society for X-Ray and Electron Diffraction (ASXRED) and the Crystallographic Society of America (CSA). The objective of the ACA is to promote interactions among scientists who study the structure of matter at atomic (or near atomic) resolution. These interactions will advance experimental and computational aspects of crystallography and diffraction. They will also promote the study of the arrangements of atoms and molecules in matter and the nature of the forces that both control and result from them.
Catherine Meyers
American Institute of Physics
301.209.3088
cmeyers@aip.org
Marcia J. Colquhoun
American Crystallographic Association
716.898.8692
marcia@hwl.buffalo.edu

Catherine Meyers | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.aip.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New gene potentially involved in metastasis identified
26.03.2019 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria

nachricht Decoding the genomes of duckweeds: low mutation rates contribute to low genetic diversity
26.03.2019 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New gene potentially involved in metastasis identified

Gene named after Roman goddess Minerva as immune cells get stuck in the fruit fly’s head

Cancers that display a specific combination of sugars, called T-antigen, are more likely to spread through the body and kill a patient. However, what regulates...

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Searching for disappeared anti-matter: A successful start to measurements with Belle II

26.03.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Extremely accurate measurements of atom states for quantum computing

26.03.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Listening to the quantum vacuum

26.03.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>