Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ripening secrets of the vine revealed

22.11.2007
Whether you prefer a Cabernet Sauvignon or a Pinot Noir grape variety, two new research articles published in the online open access journal, BMC Genomics, offer a host of new genetic information on fruit ripening for this economically important fruit crop.

The grapevine's gene expression analysis reveals two distinct molecular and functional phases that correspond with the green and red grape stages. And researchers have reported the first biochemical evidence that reactive oxygen species accumulate during the colour transition. Stefania Pilati and fellow researchers from the IASMA Research Center, San Michele all'Adige, Italy, investigated ripening Pinot Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) to identify fruit ripening genes and investigate seasonal influences. They found a core set of more than 1,400 ripening-specific genes that fluctuated similarly across three growing seasons and a smaller gene group strongly influenced by climatic conditions.

During the green berry (pre-véraison) phase, numerous genes involved in hormonal signalling and transcriptional regulation were modulated, suggesting large-scale cellular metabolism reprogramming. Auxin, ethylene and light played pivotal roles. During the following ripening (post-véraison) phase, genes for cell-wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms, and stress response came into play, whereas photosynthesis was strongly repressed. These transcriptional events tally with the processes of berry softening and accumulation of sugar, colour and aroma compounds, which ultimately determine berry and wine quality. At véraison, the intervening point when grapes slow down their growth and change colour, this study highlighted an oxidative burst involving hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an extensive modulation of the enzymatic anti-oxidative network.

Meanwhile, Laurent G. Deluc and colleagues from the University of Nevada, Reno and the Boston University School of Medicine, USA, took a closer look at the V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon variety, surveying seven different stages of grape berry development. The team mapped pronounced differences throughout development in messenger-RNA (mRNA) expression for genes that play key functional roles in a host of processes. These included organic and amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance.

... more about:
»Development »Expression »metabolism »ripening

In particular, the researchers recorded changes associated with transcription factor expression patterns, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signalling genes that identified candidate factors likely to participate in véraison, or aroma compound production, and in pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Some mRNAs were observed to decrease or increase specifically throughout ripening and sugar metabolism gene expression pattern analysis revealed an alternative and previously uncharacterised pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production invoked from véraison to mature berries.

Despite the grapevine's importance, genetic cues underlying the biochemical and physical changes during berry and flavour development have lain undiscovered - until now. "The large number of regulatory genes we have identified represents a powerful new resource for dissecting the mechanisms of fruit ripening control in non-climacteric plants", Pilati and co-workers say. Meanwhile, the second team say they have identified "a set of previously unknown genes potentially involved in critical steps associated with fruit development that can now be subjected to functional testing".

Charlotte Webber | alfa
Further information:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcgenomics/

Further reports about: Development Expression metabolism ripening

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

nachricht First transcription atlas of all wheat genes expands prospects for research and cultivation
17.08.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte

17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Robots as Tools and Partners in Rehabilitation

17.08.2018 | Information Technology

Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves

17.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>