Danish researchers have now developed a method, which can help expose a complicated but crucial part of the immune system's defence mechanisms. This method can lead to entirely new vaccines and treatments.
Researchers from BioCentrum DTU and the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Copenhagen have combined the fields of Bioinformatics and ImmunoChemistry and created models of neural networks, which can do what has thus far been impossibe: Simulate how the immune system defends itself from disease. The neural network models also indicate that the immune system protects itself from being deceived by microorganisms, by using ingenious PIN code-like mechanisms. Every human being has its own unique immune system PIN code, so that even if e.g. a virus unlocks the code in one person, the knowledge gained by the virus is useless in infecting the next individual. But the same defence mechanism makes it difficult to decode the entire human immune system and develop precise immunological treatments such as vaccines.
With the new neural networks, however, Danish researchers will be able to predict all the different known, but also the as of yet unknown immune system PIN codes. This makes it the most comprehensive tool of its kind, putting the technology at the forefront of international research. News of the development has just been published in the scientific magazine PloS ONE.
On a global scale, the neural networks can help researchers deal with all the variables of an epidemic threat. "We'll be able to find candidates for vaccines which can help both the individual and all of humanity," says Professor Søren Buus from the Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen.Contact Information:
The T-cells, however, cannot see directly into other cells. To do this job, they use "samplers", called tissue type molecules, which drag fragments of everything inside the cell being investigated to its surface, and show these samples to the T-cells. Researchers have known for a long time that this selection of samples plays a key part in the workings of the immune system; if a microorganism can evade the samplers, it evades the entire immune system.
So a microorganism can never know which samplers it encounters; and even if it does figure this out in one human, the knowledge is useless in the next person infected. This defence strategy provides one of the most sturdy ways of protecting the immune system from being infiltrated - a little like PIN codes protecting our credit cards.
If we are to understand how the T-cells work, and use this knowledge of the immune system to discover, diagnose and treat diseases, the researchers must first identify precisely those cell fragments that the samplers choose to display, since it is only if the tissue type molecules show the right part of an infected cell to the T-cell, that the immune system reacts.Why human tissue type is vital to immunology
This can have far reaching consequences for the treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and transplants.
Sandra Szivos | EurekAlert!
Protein interaction helps Yersinia cause disease
21.08.2018 | Schwedischer Forschungsrat - The Swedish Research Council
Nanobot pumps destroy nerve agents
21.08.2018 | American Chemical Society
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
21.08.2018 | Life Sciences
21.08.2018 | Medical Engineering