Determining the orientation is essential for an individual cell to perform it’s designated tasks. Now it appears that the same compass also defines the direction of cells when migrating by establishing a morphological back and a front. These are the conclusions of a recent study lead by scientists Michiel Pegtel and John Collard from the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL) in the Netherlands published in the October 9th issue of the scientific journal Current Biology.
Many cell types acquire asymmetry for their biological function. Yeast cells, worms, mice and men all use the same cellular compass, made up of a combination of protein complexes that is essential for the spatial orientation of the cell. The Par-Tiam1 polarity complex is a crucial component of the compass. Tiam1 was earlier identified as a gene that could influence dissemination of tumour cells.
In a previous study by the group of John Collard from the NKI-AVL, it became clear that the Par-Tiam1 complex is crucial for top/bottom orientation of adherent cells. This form of cell asymmetry is required for the cells to properly adhere and to form a tightly connected cellular structure. However, loss of orientation or cell polarity leads dissociation of cell-cell contacts and in tumours to dissemination of cancer cells.
Now it appears that the Par-Tiam1 complex also controls front-rear orientation of the cell. This way cells that leave their brethrens behind after detaching know how to find their way while migrating. Collard and colleagues showed that mouse skin cells with a functional compass migrate in a straight linear fashion toward their target. The cells persistently move forward like a caterpillar, continuously expanding and retracting in one direction. But when the Par-Tiam1 complex is disrupted or shut-down, the cells migrate aimlessly in random direction.
Pegtel & Collard: “It is becoming clear that polarity of cells is crucial for embryonic development and function of many biological processes in humans and lower organisms alike. It guides immune cells to sites of infection and directs the organization of the neuronal network. But at the same time, it also prevents detachment of adherent cells; we were very surprised that one protein complex regulates such seemingly opposing tasks”. This could explain the findings that Tiam1 is able both to promote and prevent metastasis in different tumours.
Frederique Melman | alfa
Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover
First transcription atlas of all wheat genes expands prospects for research and cultivation
17.08.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences