Researchers at IRB Barcelona under the direction of Eduard Batlle, ICREA researcher and head of IRB Barcelona’s Oncology Programme, have discovered a new mechanism by which the benign tumour cells receive instructions to grow in confined compartments, and no to invade other areas of the tissue. The description of this new tumour suppression mechanism is reported in the scientific journal Nature Genetics.
The scientists observed that adenomatous tumour cells have special surface receptors, called EphB2 and EphB3, which detect the presence of certain ligands in the healthy tissue that surround them. These receptors and their ligands serve to organize the structure of intestinal tissue. Thanks to the activity of EphB2 and EphB3, the tumour cells are forced to “listen to” the signals that they receive from their environment. These signals make the benign tumours grow in a confined space, from which they are unable to spread. “We knew that these receptors worked as tumour suppressors, but we did not know how. Now we have been able to observe that they compartmentalize the tumour, thereby preventing its spread”, explains Batlle.
Until the tumour cells learn to deactivate these receptors, they cannot invade other tissue outside the compartment. Batlle goes on to say, “as the tumour cells progress to become malignant, their genetic programme is refined and they remove the signals that block their growth, including these two receptors, which impose positional information”.
This study explains one of the key mechanisms of how a benign tumour transforms into a malignant one during the onset of colon cancer. Using experiments performed with animal models and in vitro cells, the scientists determined that the loss of compartmentalization, that is to say, the loss-of-function of these two receptors, is one of the vital factors in the development of adenoma-derived colon cancer.
It is estimated that between 30 and 50% of people over 60 years of age may develop one of these benign adenomas. Cancer of the colon ranks first in the list of the most common cancers in Spain, with more than 25,000 causes diagnosed each year. Last year alone, more than half a million people worldwide died as a result of this disease.
Sonia Armengou | alfa
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences
19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences