Malignant cells exhibit genetic alterations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. More recently, a large class of noncoding RNA transcripts called microRNAs (miRNAs) has also been included in the genetic signature of cancer. MicroRNAs are small RNAs that can regulate gene expression by inhibiting protein translation, and recent research has implicated miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression.
Dr. Carlo M. Croce from Ohio State University, Dr. Massimo Negrini from the University of Ferrara, Italy, and colleagues investigated the role of additional classes of highly conserved noncoding RNAs in human cancer that have not been studied to the extent of miRNAs. “This research will offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways altered in cancer and may present opportunities for the identification of new molecular markers and potential therapeutic agents,” explains Dr. Croce.
Using genome-wide profiling in a large panel of normal and cancer samples, the researchers discovered that genomic ultraconserved regions (UCRs) encode a particular set of noncoding RNAs whose expression is altered in human leukemias and carcinomas. These UCRs are highly conserved among different species, and although they do not encode proteins, they are likely to be functional. Inhibition of an overexpressed UCR induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, the researchers also identified a functional role of miRNAs in the transcriptional regulation of UCRs associated with cancer.
Taken together with the current knowledge of miRNAs, these results provide strong support for a model that considers alteration of both coding and noncoding RNAs in the initiation and progression of human cancer. “We found that noncoding UCRs are consistently altered at the genomic level in a high percentage of leukemias and carcinomas and may interact with miRNAs. The findings provide support for a model in which both coding and noncoding genes are involved in and cooperate in human tumorigenesis,” concludes Dr. Croce. Further research is needed to investigate the complex functional interactions between multiple types of noncoding RNAs
Nancy Wampler | EurekAlert!
Protein interaction helps Yersinia cause disease
21.08.2018 | Schwedischer Forschungsrat - The Swedish Research Council
Nanobot pumps destroy nerve agents
21.08.2018 | American Chemical Society
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
21.08.2018 | Life Sciences
21.08.2018 | Medical Engineering