Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Geochemists Take Calculi Off The Heart

13.04.2007
Researchers from three Novosibirsk Institutes have found out where heart calculi come from. Generally, geochemists’ task is to investigate how apatite sediments – main source of phosphorus for mankind – are formed in nature.

However, they assumed that similar processes take place under the influence of microbes in living tissues, for example, in the heart. Likewise renal and intrahepatic calculi, heart calculi consist of mineral casings, by which bacteria colonies get covered, the bacteria often residing in the endocardium and on the mitral valves’ surface, but making their presence known only occasionally via infectious inflammation - endocarditis.

Bacteria live in the blood and precipitate apatite from it. Cardiolytes are formed - coral-like calculi weighting from 1 to 4 grams penetrated by organic films. They have to be surgically extracted out of the heart. Cardiolytes’ microstructure gave away their bacterial origin – they consist of the smallest corpuscles - globules, their size being less than one thousandth portion of a millimeter, and such constructions are normally built by bacteria. Globules inosculate, thus forming clusters, spheres or drusen in the shape of a flower.

A little later, the researchers managed to catch the builders. They turned out to be bacteria of the coccoid (spheric) shape connected by polysacharide threads. The researchers do not exclude the possibility that these are the very enterococci and streptococci, which cause infective endocarditis. At least, a lot of patients who had survived it, needed to remove calculi from the heart later, as physicians rarely manage to fully extirpate parasites. Endocarditis is over, but the survived microbes recover from antibiotics and go on living.

... more about:
»Organic »apatite »calculi »cardiolytes »phosphorus

The researchers examined via the electron microscope how cardiolytes are formed. The cardiolytes were withdrawn during the heart operation in several clinics of Siberia. Natural samples were brought for comparison from the European part of Russia, Morocco and Columbia. The researchers produced a series of preparations from different sections of “calculi” - 2 by 2 millimeters. It has turned out that both natural apatites of organic origin and cardiolytes consist of similar globular formations. The globular structure is in general the indication of biogenic origin of minerals – for example, natural carbonates are arranged in the same way. In cardiolytes, globules, corresponding in shape to the organisms that constructed them, are sorted out by size – small ones are placed along the edges of the colony, while big ones are in the middle. This indicated to gradual drusen “maturing” in the environment saturated by organic matter that contained phosphorus and calcium.

Natural and “human” apatites differ in their chemical composition. The former are better crystallized, they contain less organic matter. It is not surprising because stones are million years old, and calculi are several years old. The source of calcium and phosphorus for “stone mason” bacteria are organophosphorus molecules, which are numerous both in blood and in natural water. Their cells artificially concentrate phosphorus and calcium around them, and there is no big difference from geochemistry perspective between the cardiac muscle and the bottom layer of water saturated with organic matter. Thus, the apatite in the cardiac muscle represents the initial stage of the process, and natural minerals constitute the final product.

Ability for biomineralization within the organism is closely connected with blood composition. Several years ago, biologists managed to reproduce microbe biofouling by phosphorite casings in the in vitro culture. Thus, for example, cyanobacteria are capable to get covered by the mineral within several hours. Having made sure that various “calculi” in the organism are built by bacteria, the search can be started as regards to means of impeding this construction.

Nadezda Markina | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

Further reports about: Organic apatite calculi cardiolytes phosphorus

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht In focus: Peptides, the “little brothers and sisters” of proteins
12.11.2018 | Technische Universität Berlin

nachricht How to produce fluorescent nanoparticles for medical applications in a nuclear reactor
09.11.2018 | Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IOCB Prague)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

Im Focus: Coping with errors in the quantum age

Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly

The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...

Im Focus: Nanorobots propel through the eye

Scientists developed specially coated nanometer-sized vehicles that can be actively moved through dense tissue like the vitreous of the eye. So far, the transport of nano-vehicles has only been demonstrated in model systems or biological fluids, but not in real tissue. The work was published in the journal Science Advances and constitutes one step further towards nanorobots becoming minimally-invasive tools for precisely delivering medicine to where it is needed.

Researchers of the “Micro, Nano and Molecular Systems” Lab at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Peptides, the “little brothers and sisters” of proteins

12.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices

12.11.2018 | Materials Sciences

A two-atom quantum duet

12.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>