Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cells use 'noise' to make cell-fate decisions

23.03.2007
Electrical noise, like the crackle heard on AM radio when lightning strikes nearby, is a nuisance that wreaks havoc on electronic devices. But within cells, a similar kind of biochemical "noise" is beneficial, helping cells transform from one state to another, according to a new study led by a UT Southwestern Medical Center researcher.

Dr. Gürol Süel, assistant professor of pharmacology, said his research and that of his colleagues published today in the journal Science represents "a new paradigm," suggesting that rather than being bad for biology, cellular noise might have an important function, such as prompting stem cells to transform into a specific tissue type.

Electronic noise is an unwanted signal characteristic of all electrical circuits, typically caused by random fluctuations in the electric current passing through the components of a circuit. Similarly, within each living cell there are myriad "genetic circuits," each composed of a distinct set of biochemical reactions that contribute to some biological process. Randomness in those reactions contributes to biological noise, technically referred to as stochastic fluctuations.

"Noise in biological systems is a fact of life," said Dr. Süel, a member of the systems biology division of the Cecil H. and Ida Green Comprehensive Center for Molecular, Computational and Systems Biology at UT Southwestern. "Even though each cell may have the same set of genes turned on – the same hard-wired genetic circuit – there will still be slight variations in the amount of the various proteins those genes produce, some fluctuation in the amount of each circuit component. No two cells are alike in terms of their chemical composition."

Conventional scientific thinking has been that the random nature of such fluctuations within cells interferes with the reliable operation of biological systems. However, Dr. Süel's research team hypothesized that noise in one particular genetic circuit might be beneficial, linked to a process that controls cell fate.

To determine the biological role for noise, the researchers analyzed a genetic circuit that controls the transformation of bacteria cells from one state to another. This process, called differentiation, is akin to that used by human stem cells to change into a specific tissue type.

In a series of theoretical calculations and actual experiments, the researchers found that the particular circuit they investigated appears to have evolved in this bacterium to amplify cellular noise. Dr. Süel and his colleagues determined that by dampening the noise level within the bacterial cells, they could prevent the cells' transformation between states, essentially "tuning" cellular behavior.

"The amplitude of cellular noise correlates with the probability of triggering differentiation," Dr. Süel said. "This is experimental evidence that a genetic circuit utilizes noise to drive a biological process."

Typically, scientists examine genes and proteins individually to try to determine their functions within a cell. However, Dr. Süel said that's like examining each capacitor or switch in an electrical circuit in an attempt to understand the function of the electrical device in which the circuit is housed.

"Our research provides a systems-level view of how gene circuits work as a whole," he said.

Dr. Süel said the next step in his research would be to uncover the theoretical design principles of genetic circuits and what role interactions between distinct circuits play in regulating complex biological processes, such the differentiation of multipotent stem cells.

Dr. Süel, who earned his doctorate in molecular biophysics from UT Southwestern, carried out much of the work for the Science paper while a postdoctoral research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. He joined the UT Southwestern faculty in November and is an Endowed Scholar in Biomedical Research.

Other co-authors on the Science paper are Rajan Kulkarni and senior author Michael Elowitz, both of Caltech; Jonathan Dworkin of Columbia University; and Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya in Spain.

The work was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health, the Searle Scholars Program and the Human Frontier Science Program.

Amanda Siegfried | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utsouthwestern.edu

Further reports about: Fluctuation Science Süel biological process biological system

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists coax proteins to form synthetic structures with method that mimics nature
15.01.2019 | University of Texas at Austin

nachricht DNA library of apoid wasps published
15.01.2019 | Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

Im Focus: Mission completed – EU partners successfully test new technologies for space robots in Morocco

Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.

Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...

Im Focus: Programming light on a chip

Research opens doors in photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing and microwave photonics

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new integrated photonics platform that can...

Im Focus: Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in superconducting material

A team of experimentalists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and theoreticians at University of Alabama Birmingham discovered a remarkably long-lived new state of matter in an iron pnictide superconductor, which reveals a laser-induced formation of collective behaviors that compete with superconductivity.

"Superconductivity is a strange state of matter, in which the pairing of electrons makes them move faster," said Jigang Wang, Ames Laboratory physicist and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists coax proteins to form synthetic structures with method that mimics nature

15.01.2019 | Life Sciences

Next generation photonic memory devices are light-written, ultrafast and energy efficient

15.01.2019 | Information Technology

Viennese scientists develop promising new type of polymers

15.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>