In an article appearing March 13 in the journal Molecular Systems Biology, researchers from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne demonstrate that the stability of cellular oscillators depends on specific biochemical processes, reflecting recent association studies in families affected by advanced sleep phase syndrome.
Circadian rhythms are cyclical changes in physiology, gene expression, and behavior that run on a cycle of approximately one day, even in conditions of constant light or darkness. Peripheral organs in the body have their own cellular clocks that are reset on a daily basis by a central master clock in the brain. The operation of the cellular clocks is controlled by the coordinated action of a limited number of core clock genes. The oscillators work like this: the cell receives a signal from the master pacemaker in the hypothalamus, and then these clock genes respond by setting up concentration gradients that change in a periodic manner. The cell “interprets” these gradients and unleashes tissue-specific circadian responses. Some examples of output from these clocks are the daily rhythmic changes in body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of melatonin and glucocorticoids, urine production, acid secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, and changes in liver metabolism.
In the tiny volume of the cell, however, the chemical environment is constantly fluctuating. How is it possible for all these cell-autonomous clocks to sustain accurate 24-hour rhythms in such a noisy environment?
Using mouse fibroblast circadian bioluminescence recordings from the Schibler Lab at the University of Geneva, the researchers turned to dynamical systems theory and developed a mathematical model that identified the molecular parameters responsible for the stability of the cellular clocks. Stability is a measure of how fast the system reverts to its initial state after being perturbed.
“To my knowledge we are the first to discuss how the stability of the oscillator directly affects bioluminescence recordings,” explains Felix Naef, a systems biology professor at EPFL and the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research. “We found that the phosphorylation and transcription rates of a specific gene are key determinants of the stability of our internal body clocks.”
This result is consistent with recent research from the University of California, San Francisco involving families whose circadian clocks don’t tick quite right. These families’ clocks are shorter than 24 hours, and they also have mutations in oscillator-related genes. The current results shed light on how a genetically-linked phosphorylation event gone wrong could lead to inaccurate timing of our body clockworks.
Mary Parlange | alfa
Mass spectrometry sheds new light on thallium poisoning cold case
14.12.2018 | University of Maryland
Protein involved in nematode stress response identified
14.12.2018 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.
Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...
What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...
A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.
The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...
A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.
Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...
Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the discovery, recognised by the Nobel Prize in Physics only two years ago, that there are two types...
12.12.2018 | Event News
10.12.2018 | Event News
06.12.2018 | Event News
14.12.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
14.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
14.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy