Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

LIAI completes world's most comprehensive analysis on influenza virus data

05.01.2007
Study will help international scientific community combat seasonal and avian flu strains

Researchers from the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology (LIAI) announced today the results of a first of its kind study analyzing all published data worldwide on influenza A virus antibody and T cell epitopes.

Antibody and T cell epitopes are small sites on a virus that are the targets of the immune response, and they are critical for developing therapies and vaccines to combat infectious disease. The study, using information from a worldwide research database funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), provides an important tool for scientists seeking to develop vaccines and therapies against both seasonal and pandemic influenza strains, including the deadly H5N1 avian flu.

"This study shows what is currently known about influenza A virus epitopes -- what are the areas that are well covered in the current research and where are the holes in our knowledge," said Alessandro Sette, Ph.D., director of LIAI's Center for Infectious Disease and one of the study's authors. "From this information, the scientific community can determine areas where focus is needed going forward."

... more about:
»Antibody »Database »Epitope »H5N1 »LIAI »Wilson »avian »avian flu

The findings are being published online this week in a paper, "Antibody and T Cell Epitopes of Influenza A Virus – Knowledge and Opportunities" in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. LIAI researcher Huynh-Hoa Bui, Ph.D., was lead author on the paper.

The study looked at all scientific data on influenza A virus antibody and T cell epitopes published to date worldwide, drawing from the NIAID's Immune Epitope Database, a new worldwide scientific resource that went public last summer. LIAI researchers developed the database – which is the world's largest repository of scientific data on how the body's immune system responds to infectious agents -- under a $25 million contract awarded by the NIAID in 2004.

The database places particular emphasis on emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus, along with those diseases considered potential bioterrorist threats. The database's influenza research was analyzed first due to the continuing problem of seasonal influenza and public health concerns over the possible spread of the H5N1 avian flu.

"The database marks the first time that all known antibody and T cell epitope information has been compiled in one place," said Sette, noting the searchable online database is freely available to scientists around the globe. "It gives researchers ways of sharing knowledge and information never available before. Previously, everyone did their own study, but would have no way of knowing if a particular epitope had been used one time, for example by a single individual responding to a single virus, or 100 different times. Now, scientists can search the database and find out all existing information on their particular topic. This will enable them to avoid unnecessary repetition and make faster progress toward new therapies and vaccines."

The database, publicly accessible at http://immuneEPITOPE.org, includes information culled from more than 100,000 separate research articles published over several decades, with the influenza information representing only a portion of the massive data set. "The influenza data shows that people have done a lot of work that gives important information as to how we respond to influenza virus," said Stephen Wilson, Ph.D., LIAI chief technology officer and project director of the database. "It also highlights those critical areas where we need to look further. The fact that we don't have a comprehensive vaccine for flu shows we have more work to do. This study shows us where we need to focus going forward."

For the influenza study, LIAI researchers analyzed information from 58 different influenza A virus strains, involving 600 different antibody and T cell epitopes. In particular, the LIAI scientists identified epitopes that were similar in many influenza strains. "This is important because the influenza virus continually changes requiring scientists to develop a new vaccine every year," Sette said. "If we can find shared epitopes, it may be possible to develop an influenza vaccine with greater cross protection for many different viruses." Sette said the study found hundreds of similar epitopes among the different virus strains. However, it remains to be seen whether these epitopes are similar enough to enable the successful development of a highly cross reactive influenza vaccine that would protect against many viruses. And, in fact, the study found only one epitope that has been published, which appears to be an ideal candidate for creating a multi-strain influenza vaccine.

Regarding gaps in knowledge of the way people respond to influenza, Wilson said two significant points emerged. "One concern is that most of the current influenza research is based on strains maintained in the lab, rather than wild influenza strains. Since we know the virus mutates, research needs to be done using influenza strains currently circulating in the population, so-called 'wild' strains, rather than using strains propagated in the lab. "

Secondly, Wilson noted that the analysis showed that most of the detailed studies were done in animal models, primarily mice, with very little data coming from studies with humans or birds. Only one of the antibody epitopes came from a human. "This is understandable given the ethical and health issues of testing a potential pathogen in humans," Wilson said. "However, based on this information, I think the research community will pursue data directly relevant to human immunity to influenza virus to close those critical gaps."

Regarding the dreaded H5N1 avian flu specifically, the information showed some important H5N1 epitopes currently being investigated. However, the number represented only a few of the 600 influenza virus epitopes in the database. "Given the concerns among the worldwide health community about this virus, I think this data gives timely assistance to much needed research in this area," Wilson said. He noted that such information is extremely valuable and shows how important the database can be for all researchers in determining their future research plans. "This study focused on influenza because it is a major illness that kills 36,000 Americans each year and global concerns over the possible spread of the H5N1 avian flu. In the future, database information on other infectious diseases can also be analyzed and used to good effect."

Bonnie Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.liai.org

Further reports about: Antibody Database Epitope H5N1 LIAI Wilson avian avian flu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Insect Antibiotic Provides New Way to Eliminate Bacteria
15.11.2018 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New findings help to better calculate the oceans’ contribution to climate regulation
15.11.2018 | Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

Im Focus: Coping with errors in the quantum age

Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly

The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Putting food-safety detection in the hands of consumers

15.11.2018 | Information Technology

Insect Antibiotic Provides New Way to Eliminate Bacteria

15.11.2018 | Life Sciences

New findings help to better calculate the oceans’ contribution to climate regulation

15.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>