Oxygen piles up: the four atom form might make good fuel.
Scientists have detected a molecule they’ve been looking for since the 1920s.
Scientists in Italy have discovered a new form of oxygen1. In addition to the two well-known forms - ozone and the oxygen molecules in air - there is a third, they say, in which oxygen atoms are grouped in fours.
The oxygen molecules that we breathe (denoted O2) consist of two oxygen atoms. This, the most stable form of oxygen, makes up about one-fifth of air. Ozone is more reactive and comprises three oxygen atoms (O3). It is formed in the atmosphere in small quantities when sunlight splits O2 into its component atoms, which then recombine.
To prove conclusively that they had identified O4, Cacace’s team used mass spectrometry. This technique separates a mixture of electrically charged molecules (ions) according to their mass and charge.
The researchers combined O2 molecules and positively charged O2 ions to produce O4 ions, which are identifiable by being four times as massive as oxygen atoms. They then added an electron to each O4 ion, transforming it to a neutral molecule.
After a short interval, the team stripped an electron from each O4 molecule so that they could detect them again as ions (neutral molecules are invisible to mass spectrometry). They reasoned that if the neutral molecules were sufficiently stable, they would show up when re-ionized - as indeed they did.
What O4 looks like is still a mystery. Earlier theoretical calculations suggested two possibilities: a rhombus-shaped molecule with an atom at each corner, or a triangle of atoms with the fourth in the centre. But neither of these options fits the researchers’ results very well.
Instead, they think that O4 is probably composed of two dumbbell-like O2 molecules that are loosely bound together.
PHILIP BALL | © Nature News Service
World’s Largest Study on Allergic Rhinitis Reveals new Risk Genes
17.07.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Plant mothers talk to their embryos via the hormone auxin
17.07.2018 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
17.07.2018 | Information Technology
17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering