Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lymphocytes From A Risk Group

07.03.2006


The thyroid gland is very sensitive to ionizing radiation. The number of patients with thyroid gland cancer is particularly high among those who endured the Chernobyl catastrophe in childhood. Ultrasonic scanning and bioptic tests investigations are usually used for early detection of thyroid gland cancer but researchers do not stop the search of more efficient methods.



They deal with molecular markers of cancer in order to discover mutation of the genes participating in carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, the existing methods for search of mutant genes are labour-intensive and expensive, therefore they do not fit for mass use. However, there is no need to seek changes particularly in oncogenes. In case of malignant transformation, mutation frequency increases in all cells of the organism.

Thus, European researchers have discovered that people with increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes of blood more often fall ill with cancer. According to Japanese and Russian researchers’ data, the patients suffering from larynx cancer and some other malignant growths, even before treatment starts experience increase of quantity of lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR) genes mutations. These mutations are easy to discover via a special immunological test, which was used by the Obninsk physicians for search of mutant lymphocytes in blood of patients with thyroid gland cancer.


The investigation involved venous blood of oncological patients (who had not undergone treatment yet) and that of healthy donors. Double increase of mutant lymphocyte frequency (more than 6.2 mutants per 10,000 cells) as compared to the background group was discovered with 37 percent of cancer patients, and this result cannot be considered accidental. Increased mutation frequency may be a hereditary trait - predisposition to genome instability, when probability of malignant transformation rises significantly. The same thing happens in case of some hereditary diseases (for example, Bloom’s syndrome, Fanconi anemia). Among the mutations discovered with patients with such syndromes, T-cell receptor mutations occupied a noticeable place.

After the Chernobyl catastrophe, a vast territory was exposed to contamination by radionuclids, and its inhabitants – to action of low ionizing radiation doses. Ionizing radiation leads to genetic instability. Among participants to the experiment, who lived in contaminated territories, the frequency of TCR-mutation made 45 percent. There is other indirect evidence as well that genotoxic influence, including ionizing radiation increase TCR-mutation frequency.

Therefore, a large number of mutant T-lymphocytes with a person means that their owner has become a prey to irradiation or his/her genome is non-stable for some reason. In this case, the patient should at least be attributed to a risk group, and it should be kept in mind that TCR-mutations are often found with oncological patients prior to treatment . This circumstance will help discover cancer at the very early stage.

Increased frequency of mutations in patient’s lymphocytes is the evidence of risk. But, unfortunately, the lack of mutation does not mean anything. Therefore, the researchers are going to continue the search for other molecular markers of cancer development. The more tests are used, the higher probability is to discover the risk.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates
20.08.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum bugs, meet your new swatter

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates

20.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Metamolds: Molding a mold

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>