Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Case biologists show that what a neuron can do is a function of mechanical context

08.02.2006


The brain as command center for bodily movement was too simple an idea, thought the Russian physiologist Nicolas Bernstein some 60 years ago. After studying human movements for years, Bernstein pointed out in 1940 that the great flexibility of the body, coupled with unexpected events in the world, meant that the nervous system had to prepare the body in advance for what might happen next.



If Bernstein were right, it would affect the design of prosthetic devices and biologically inspired robots.

Using computer technologies unavailable to their predecessor, researchers at Case Western Reserve University have provided direct evidence for Bernstein’s hypothesis. Reporting on their findings in the Journal of Neuroscience are Hillel Chiel, professor of biology, neurosciences and biomedical engineering; Hui Ye, Chiel’s former graduate student who is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Toronto Western Research Institute; and Dr. Douglas Morton, another former graduate student who is currently a radiologist at Premier Medical Imaging in Michigan.


To test Bernstein’s hypothesis in animals, Ye, Morton and Chiel studied the neural control of swallowing in the sea slug Aplysia californica. In stronger swallows, part of the neural output sets up feeding muscles so that they act in new ways. Specifically, a "grasper" muscle, controlled by motor neuron B8, acquires a new function: it not only grasps the food, but also pulls it in.

Another muscle, called the "hinge," that exerts no force in weak swallows can pull the grasper back during strong swallows. This means that the motor neuron for the hinge, B7, affects behavior in one context, but not in another.

These studies provide the first demonstration of Bernstein’s hypothesis in a behaving animal, and indicate that the behavioral roles of motor neurons can change depending on how parts of the body are positioned.

The Case scientists have previously applied their research findings to the creation of mechanical devices that mimic the interactions of an animal’s neurons and muscles to produce movement.

"This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the neurons and the muscles and how it is just as relevant in humans as it is in the less complicated system of the slug," said Chiel, who has patented robotic graspers based on the sea slug’s behavior.

Understanding how neurons trigger and interact with the muscles will help Chiel and his research group develop new generations of robots that can move through water or tube-like structures such as pipes, blood vessels and the colon.

Susan Griffith | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.case.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates
20.08.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum bugs, meet your new swatter

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates

20.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Metamolds: Molding a mold

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>