One of the key controllers of neural development seems to depend on a simple cellular decision--whether to divide perpendicularly or in parallel to the embryonic structure called the neuroepithelium. Nevertheless, such orientation is critical, and understanding its machinery could help neuroscientists learn to control the division of adult neural stem cells to regenerate neural tissues.
Researchers know that during the earliest embryonic brain development, neural stem cells divide "symmetrically," producing identical immature progenitor cells that continue to proliferate. A bit later, however, when neural tissues need to begin to differentiate, the cells divide "asymmetrically," producing one proliferating progenitor and another that stops proliferating and differentiates into an adult neural cell. And during final brain development, the cells return to symmetric cell division, creating differentiated adult cells.
The two types of cell division seem to be governed by the orientation of the tiny bundles of fiber-like microtubules called spindles inside the dividing cell--whether the spindles are oriented parallel or perpendicular to the neuroepithelium. These spindles attach to the dividing chromosomes in the nucleus and drag the two copies apart, ensuring that each daughter cell has its fair share.
Fish recognize their prey by electric colors
13.11.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
The dawn of a new era for genebanks - molecular characterisation of an entire genebank collection
13.11.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung
Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.
Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...
Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...
On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly
The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...
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