Humans exposed to malaria get infected and sick to varying degrees, and some of that variation is due to differences in genetic makeup between individuals. But how important are genetic factors compared with environmental ones? Margaret Mackinnon and colleagues (from the University of Cambridge) have an answer which they report in the international open-access medical journal PLoS Medicine.
Rather than focusing on specific genes, Mackinnon and colleagues were interested in the relative contributions of host genetics and other factors to the risk of malaria. To estimate the overall contribution of genetic factors to the difference in disease incidence between individuals within a population, one needs three types of data: (1) disease incidence for individuals over a certain period of time (to be able to determine an individuals risk); (2) information on genetic relatedness of the individuals in the population; and (3) a set-up in which individuals with different levels of relatedness share the same environment and/or where related individuals live in different environments. (The third condition is essential to distinguish between genetic and environmental effects.)
The researchers studied two populations of children from a malaria-endemic area in Kenya for which they could obtain the necessary data. In one case, they determined incidence of mild clinical malaria in 640 children over a period of 5 years. For the second part, they monitored severe malaria that led to hospitalization and non-malaria hospitalizations in 2,900 children, also over a five-year period.
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Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly
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Researchers of the “Micro, Nano and Molecular Systems” Lab at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international...
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