A drug used for the treatment of sickle cell anemia in adults has now been shown to cause significant improvements in very young children with the disorder. The finding is an important one as these young patients are especially vulnerable to serious organ failure and even death at an early age. The study results will be published in the October 1, 2005, issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology.
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disorder that can cause severe pain, fatigue, and organ damage to the kidneys, spleen, and liver. It occurs in about one in every 500 African-Americans. In the new study, 21 children from two to four years old who had sickle cell anemia were given the drug hydroxyurea orally as a flavored liquid formula. A majority of the children took the drug for at least four years and more than half of the participants completed all six years of the study.
The treatment was well-tolerated in the patients, with only one childs dosage permanently reduced during the study due to adverse effects. The drugs primary function, to counteract the effects of the disease by increasing and sustaining fetal hemoglobin production, was achieved in all study participants. Patients treated with hydroxyurea also weighed more and were taller than untreated children with the disorder – their growth rates were even comparable to those of normal children.
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Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
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