Listeria inside a macrophage, an immune cell enlisted in the immune response. Credit: Paul Neeson, PhD, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
When bacteria such as Listeria and Salmonella are taken up into a phagocytic cell of the immune system, they are engulfed into a phagocytic vacuole in the interior of the cell. Here they may be destroyed and fragments of antigens they carry will eventually egress to the cell surface to activate CD4 immune cells, which are important in assisting in the immune response. Listeria, unlike other bacteria, has evolved to break out of the vacuole and survive inside the immune cell. This way antigens that Listeria carries are targeted to a pathway in the cytoplasm where they are broken into peptides and taken to the cell surface for recognition by killer T cells. These killer T cells seek out and destroy tumor cells displaying tumor-specific antigens. Credit: Yvonne Paterson, PhD, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Findings Could Lead To New Immune Therapy for Breast Cancer
A team from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine has shown that by using a cancer vaccine based on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, they can cure mice with established breast tumors. Cancer vaccines, which are more properly described as immunotherapy, work by boosting an immune response against tumor-associated antigens. Using Listeria, the researchers, led by Yvonne Paterson, PhD, Professor of Microbiology, delivered the tumor-associated antigen HER-2/Neu to immune cells. HER-2/Neu is overexpressed in 20 to 40 percent of all breast cancers and also present in many cancers of the ovaries, lung, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. These cells eventually enlist killer T cells to seek out and destroy the tumor cells that display the HER-2/Neu molecule.
"We found that we can stop the tumor from growing out to 100 days, at which time we stopped measuring since this is a long time for experiments of this type," says Paterson. "The tumors stopped growing or went completely away." The researchers published their findings in the September 15 issue of The Journal of Immunology.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
The “TRiC” to folding actin
10.08.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
SERSitive: New substrates make it possible to routinely detect one molecule in a million
10.08.2018 | Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
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The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.
Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...
If certain signaling cascades are misregulated, diseases like cancer, obesity and diabetes may occur. A mechanism recently discovered by scientists at the Leibniz- Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) in Berlin and at the University of Geneva has a crucial influence on such signaling cascades and may be an important key for the future development of therapies against these diseases. The results of the study have just been published in the prestigious scientific journal 'Molecular Cell'.
Cell growth and cell differentiation as well as the release and efficacy of hormones such as insulin depend on the presence of lipids. Lipids are small...
You seem to be standing in the plasma vessel looking around: Where otherwise plasmas with temperatures of several million degrees are being investigated, with...
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