Scientists in Italy have found that a drug that blocks acid buildup inside cells revs up the immune response to vaccines. Reporting in the September 19 issue of The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vincenzo Barnaba and his team at the University of Rome show that people receiving booster shots against hepatitis B virus developed more robust immune responses if given a widely used anti-malaria drug called chloroquine.
Many vaccines are made up of soluble proteins derived from dangerous viruses or bacteria. But because of the way these proteins are broken down by cells, they do a poor job of prodding killer cells called cytolytic T cells into action. Cytolytic T cells are responsible for identifying and executing infected cells, so finding ways to get more of these cells activated is an important goal for vaccine development.
Barnaba and his colleagues now show that exposing cells to chloroquine prevents the acidification of cellular compartments into which vaccine proteins are taken up. Normally these proteins would be digested rapidly inside the compartment, but this is prevented by chloroquine because the degradation requires an acidic environment. The chloroquine treatment also made the vesicles leaky, allowing the proteins to escape into the cytoplasm of the cell. From there, they could be broken down such that small pieces of the protein are displayed to nearby cytolytic T cells; recognition of these small pieces of protein activates the killer cells.
Nickey Henry | EurekAlert!
Chips, light and coding moves the front line in beating bacteria
16.08.2018 | Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University
Protein droplets keep neurons at the ready and immune system in balance
16.08.2018 | Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
16.08.2018 | Earth Sciences
16.08.2018 | Life Sciences
16.08.2018 | Materials Sciences