With the unusual opportunity that human leprosy infections provide for study of human immune responses, scientists have discovered how the bodys early warning system prompts a rapid immune response by two separate armies of defensive cells. The finding helps explain why, when threatened by microbes like the leprosy bug, this initial defense sometimes succeeds in limiting the damage, but in other cases yields to a dangerous, spreading infection.
Led by Stephan R. Krutzik of UCLA, a team of scientists that includes Barry R. Bloom, Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health, reported the work on May 8 in an advance online publication of Nature Medicine.
The researchers isolated immune cells in blood samples from healthy people and exposed the cells to a component of mycobacteria. The large white blood cells known as monocytes rapidly differentiated into the two distinct cell types, forming the bodys emergency response to the detection of foreign bacteria. One category of defensive cells, macrophages, seek out and engulf the infectious bugs. The other group consists of dendritic, or "antigen-presenting" cells, which seize distinctive pieces of the enemy and use them to "educate" and stir up a second immune response, known as "adaptive" immunity.
Christina Roache | EurekAlert!
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Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
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Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
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