By deciphering the ingenious mechanism used by a particular enzyme to modify bacterial chromosome chemistry, scientists have come a step closer to designing a new kind of drug that could stop virulent bacterial infections in their tracks. Their research will be published in the May 6 issue of the journal Cell.
Scientists have known for many years that an enzyme called Dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) plays a role in regulating gene expression in many bacteria. Each time the bacteria reproduce, Dam modifies the A (adenine) nucleotide in the DNA sequence GATC through a chemical reaction known as methylation. Methylation is a biological process used to tag a variety of molecules, including DNA, and is important in cellular processes such as regulating gene expression, DNA replication and repair. In humans DNA methylation occurs on the C (cytosine) rather than the A (adenine) nucleotide.
Recently scientists have discovered a new role for Dam methylation. Dam also is essential for regulating the expression of genes responsible for bacterial virulence. When the gene responsible for Dam is defective, bacteria lose their disease-causing potency. Using the X-ray diffraction facility at the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago, Xiaodong Cheng, PhD, professor of biochemistry at Emory University School of Medicine and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar, and John Horton, PhD, Research Assistant Professor, have now solved the co-crystal structure of the Dam enzyme in complex with DNA, which has allowed them to observe exactly how the enzyme finds its target on bacterial DNA.
Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
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A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
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