Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Inexpensive, mass-produced genes at core of synthetic biology advances at UH

23.12.2004


Professor Xiaolian Gao’s research unlocks potential for new medications, vaccines and diagnostics



Devices the size of a pager now have greater capabilities than computers that once occupied an entire room. Similar advances are being made in the emerging field of synthetic biology at the University of Houston, now allowing researchers to inexpensively program the chemical synthesis of entire genes on a single microchip.

Xiaolian Gao, a professor in the department of biology and biochemistry at UH, works at the leading edge of this field. Her recent findings on how to mass produce multiple genes on a single chip are described in a paper titled "Accurate multiplex gene synthesis from programmable DNA microchips," appearing in the current issue of Nature, the weekly scientific journal for biological and physical sciences research.


"Synthetic genes are like a box of Lego building blocks," Gao said. "Their organization is very complex, even in simple organisms. By making programmed synthesis of genes economical, we can provide more efficient tools to aid the efforts of researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate biological systems. There are many potential biochemical and biomedical applications."

Most immediately, examples include understanding the regulation of gene function. Down the road, these efforts will improve health care, medicine and the environment at a fundamental level.

Using current methods, programmed synthesis of a typical gene costs thousands of dollars. Thus, the prospect of creating the most primitive of living organisms, which requires synthesis of several thousand genes, would be prohibitive, costing millions of dollars and years of time. The system developed by Gao and her partners employs digital technology similar to that used in making computer chips and thereby reduces cost and time factors drastically. Gao’s group estimates that the new technology will be about one hundred times more cost- and time-efficient than current technologies.

With this discovery, Gao and her colleagues have developed a technology with the potential to make complete functioning organisms that can produce energy, neutralize toxins and make drugs and artificial genes that could eventually be used in gene therapy procedures. Gene therapy is a promising approach to the treatment of genetic disorders, debilitating neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and endocrine disorders such as diabetes. This technology may therefore yield profound benefits for human health and quality of life.

"The technology developed by Dr. Gao and her collaborators has the potential to make research that many of us could only dream about both plausible and cost effective," said Stuart Dryer, chair of the department of biology and biochemistry at UH. "In my own research on neurological diseases, we’ve often wished we could rapidly synthesize many variations of large naturally occurring genes. The costs of current technology have prevented us from doing this, but Dr. Gao’s research will break down that barrier."

This technology offers tremendous potential benefits, as synthetic genes could allow for development and production of safer, less toxic proteins that are currently used in disease treatment. It also could allow for production of large molecules that do not occur naturally, but that are needed for new generations of vaccines and therapeutic agents, including vaccines for HIV and other viral diseases. This technology also will facilitate development of new medications through the creation of humanized yet synthetic antibodies that could be especially useful in detection and treatment of infectious organisms that could be used by terrorists.

Gao’s co-authors include Erdogan Gulari and Xiaochuan Zhou from the University of Michigan and George Church of Harvard University. Gao, Gulari and Zhou are partners in Atactic Technologies, a company that produces and markets products for life sciences research. Atactic Technologies currently holds the license to this breakthrough technology, called picoarray gene synthesis. UH and the University of Michigan are co-holders of the patents to these DNA microchip technologies.

Prior to coming to UH in 1992, Gao was a senior investigator at Glaxo Research Laboratory and received her postdoctoral training at Columbia University, her doctorate from Rutgers University and bachelor of science from the Beijing Institute of Chemical Technology. She is an expert in nucleic acid chemistry, biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance technology, structural biological chemistry and combinatorial chemistry. Research in her lab involves the interface of chemistry and biological sciences. Holding patents in biochip technologies, her current focus is to understand the relationships of function and structure of complex genomes of humans and other species. Gao’s research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Welsh Foundation, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Foundation for Cancer Research, the Merck Genomic Research Institute and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Lisa Merkl | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uh.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides
16.07.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht The secret sulfate code that lets the bad Tau in
16.07.2018 | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino

16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides

16.07.2018 | Life Sciences

New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon

16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>