Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UCLA scientists uncork fountain of youth for HIV-fighting cells

15.11.2004


Protein may help immune system fend off virus



UCLA scientists have shown that a protein called telomerase prevents the premature aging of the immune cells that fight HIV, enabling the cells to divide indefinitely and prolong their defense against infection. Published Nov. 15 in the Journal of Immunology, the research suggests a future therapy for boosting the weakened immune systems of HIV-positive people.

Every cell contains a tiny cellular clock called a telomere, which shortens each time the cell splits in two. Located at the end of the cell’s chromosome, the telomere limits the number of times a cell can divide. "Immune cells that fight HIV are under constant strain to divide in order to continue performing their protective functions. This massive amount of division shortens these cells’ telomeres prematurely," explained Dr. Rita Effros, Plott Chair in Gerontology and professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. "So the telomeres of a 40-year-old person infected with HIV resemble those of a healthy 90-year-old person."


Most scientists agree that telomeres evolved to avert the rampant cell growth that often leads to cancer. Yet many cancers continue growing because they undergo genetic changes and start to produce telomerase, which regenerates their cells’ telomeres.

Effros and first author Mirabelle Dagarag, Ph.D., hypothesized that harnessing telomerase’s power over telomeres may provide a potent weapon in helping the AIDS patient’s exhausted immune system defend itself against HIV. The researchers extracted immune cells from the blood of HIV-infected persons and tested what would happen if telomerase remained permanently switched on in the cell. "By exploiting telomerase’s growth influence on telomeres, we thought we might be able to keep the immune cells youthful and active as they replicated under attack," said Dagarag, a postgraduate researcher. "We used gene therapy to boost the immune cell’s telomerase and then exposed the cell to HIV."

What Dagarag and Effros saw delighted them.

"We found that the immune cells could divide endlessly," said Effros, a member of the UCLA AIDS Institute. "They grew at a normal rate and didn’t show any chromosomal abnormalities that might lead to cancer." "We also saw that telomerase stabilized the telomere length," added Dagarag. "The telomere didn’t shorten each time the cell divided, which left the cell able to vigorously battle HIV much longer."

The UCLA work is the first to prove that maintaining telomerase activity in immune cells from HIV-infected persons prevents telomeres from shortening. "This is the first step toward developing other telomerase-based strategies for controlling HIV disease," said Dagarag. "Increasing the amount of telomerase in certain immune cells may one day hold the key to treating AIDS." "To battle HIV infection effectively, we must strengthen the human immune system -- not just suppress the virus as current drugs do," said Effros. "We need a two-pronged approach to attack the disease from both sides of the medical equation."

Effros and the Geron Corporation, which collaborated on this study, are also testing several non-genetic methods of activating telomerase as potential treatments for persons infected with HIV.

The UCLA team’s approach could provide the foundation for immunotherapy as a treatment for HIV and related diseases that rely on lasting protection by the same immune cells. These include cancer and latent cytomegalovirus, a viral infection that often strikes organ-transplant patients and persons with AIDS.

Elaine Schmidt | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucla.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

nachricht First transcription atlas of all wheat genes expands prospects for research and cultivation
17.08.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte

17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Robots as Tools and Partners in Rehabilitation

17.08.2018 | Information Technology

Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves

17.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>