Understanding how the body’s immune system recognises and responds to microorganisms can be a major step in the development of new therapies against infectious diseases. Towards this aim, a paper just released in the October issue of Embo reports1 discusses the process used by mammals to respond to bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae which are responsible for ulcers, Listeriosis and pneumonia, respectively.
In order to protect against infection it is necessary to detect invading microorganisms/ microbes capable of inducing disease. This is done through the recognition by the immune system of molecules unique to these invading organisms. In bacteria for example, components of their cell walls such as peptidoglycan, a polymer of sugars and peptides which is involved in cells shape and wall integrity, is one such target. The innate immune system is the first line of defence as it can be mobilised almost immediately and have a crucial role in prevention of infection. But the molecules/receptors and the mechanism involved in the recognition and clearance of microrganisms by this part of the immune system are still poorly known. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of molecules which have recently emerged as key components in the recognition of infectious agents by the innate immune system.
Now, Leonardo Travassos and Ivo G Boneca from the Institute Pasteur, Paris, France together with colleagues from the Federal University of the Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil and the University Paris-Sud, in Orsay, France, found that TLR2, a member of the TRL family seems to recognise lipoteichoic acid (LTA) an important component of the bacteria cell wall, but does not recognize peptidoglycans, a result in clear disagreement with previous work by other groups. The differences found are due, according to Travassos, Boneca and colleagues, to contamination of the bacteria used in earlier research.
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20.08.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden
Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
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08.08.2018 | Event News
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20.08.2018 | Information Technology
20.08.2018 | Life Sciences
20.08.2018 | Information Technology