Two new studies, one to be published on 5 March 2004 in the journal Cell and the other published on 27 February 2004 in Molecular Cell, reveal a surprising relationship among the hordes of gene regulatory molecules that are the ultimate controllers of life processes. The surprise is that only a small portion of all genes--those needed to respond to emergencies--within a simple organism such as bakers yeast are heavily regulated. Most other genes, in contrast, typically control more routine housekeeping functions of the cell and appear to require much less regulation. "It appears that the cells strategy is analogous to the way people run their lives--we focus more attention on emergencies like an asthma attack rather than on routine but essential housekeeping chores, like laundry," explains Frank Pugh, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State and the leader of the research teams that made the discoveries.
In addition to Pugh, the researchers include graduate students Andrew D. Basehoar and Kathryn L. Huisinga, and Sara J. Zanton, a senior research technologist. "Often only a select few genes are intensively studied because they undergo lots of exciting regulation," Pugh says. "These highly regulated genes tend to respond to acute stresses like environmental toxins, heat, and viral infection, and are often taken as representative of the types of regulation governing most genes--but this appears not to be the case."
Now with the advent of DNA microarray technology, the regulation of all genes within an organism can be studied simultaneously. "Genome-wide approaches allow us to see the whole forest of genes rather than focusing on just a few of the trees," Pugh says. By comparing the dependencies of every gene on the hordes of molecular regulators, Pugh noticed that most regulators tended to seek out the same small set of genes--those that typically respond to emergencies--while a select few regulators targeted the vast majority of the genome. When Pughs team examined some of these regulators in more detail, several additional surprises jumped out.
Barbara K. Kennedy | EurekAlert!
Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex
New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences