Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Livermore scientists team with Russia to discover elements 113 and 115

03.02.2004


Scientists from the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute and the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Russia (JINR), have discovered the two newest super heavy elements, element 113 and element 115.


Left: An accelerated calcium-48 ion and an americium-243 target atom just before they collide.
Right: The moment of collision between an accelerated calcium-48 ion and an americium-243 target atom.



Left: The residue of the collision creates the new 115 element that begins decaying with the emission of alpha particles into element 113.
Right: The spontaneous fission decay eventually results in two separate atoms of previously known elements.



In experiments conducted at the JINR U400 cyclotron with the Dubna gas-filled separator between July 14 and Aug. 10, 2003, the team of scientists observed atomic decay patterns, or chains, that confirm the existence of element 115 and element 113. In these decay chains, element 113 is produced via the alpha decay of element 115.

The results have been accepted for publication in the Feb. 1, 2004 issue of Physical Review C. "These elemental discoveries underscore both the value of federally-supported basic research and the benefit of unfetteredinternational scientific collaboration," Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham said. The experiments produced four atoms each of element 115 and element 113 through the fusion reaction of calcium-48 nuclei impinging on an amercium-243 target.


The team observed three similar decay chains consisting of five consecutive alpha decays that, combined, took less than 30 seconds and terminated in a spontaneous fission of an element 105 (dubnium) isotope with a very long half-life (16 hours), making the discovery of particular interest to chemists. An interesting fourth decay chain also was observed that consisted of decays that were unlike the previous three chains.

Joshua Patin, Livermore’s primary data analyst on the team, said the three similar decay patterns were a "positive identifier that something good had been seen because the long decay chains just don’t happen that often."

"This just opens up the horizon on the periodic table," said Ken Moody, Livermore’s team leader. "It allows us to expand the fundamental principles of chemistry. From new chemistry comes new materials and new technology."

Scientists at Livermore and JINR independently verified the data.

An efficient accelerator is needed to obtain an intense calcium-48 beam. The results have only been achieved to date on the JINR’s U400 cyclotron. Associates at JINR’s ion-source group produced the intense calcium beams while Livermore supplied the americium target material.

"Twenty years ago, no one would have ever thought that this was possible because the technology to produce such an element just wasn’t there," Patin said. "But with the efficiency of the Russian cyclotron and the ability to run the experiments for long periods of time, we were able to achieve this tremendous accomplishment."

Members of the Livermore team include Patin, Moody, John Wild, Mark Stoyer, Nancy Stoyer, Dawn Shaughnessy, Jacqueline Kenneally and Ronald Lougheed.

Livermore has had a long-standing heavy element group since the inception of the Laboratory in 1952. The group has been successful in the discovery of several new elements over the years because it has access to unique materials to perform the experiments. In 1998 and 1999, the Laboratory announced the discovery of elements 114 and 116, respectively.

"This is quite a breakthrough for science," said Chemistry and Materials Science Associate Director Tomas Diaz de la Rubia. "We’ve discovered two new elements that provide insight into the makeup of the universe.

"For our scientists to find two more pieces of the puzzle is a testament to the strength and value of the science and technology at this Laboratory."

Scientists in Livermore’s Seaborg Institute, named after the renowned nuclear chemist, reinvent nuclear and bionuclear science to enable out-of-the-box solutions to national problems.


The work is supported by the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Russian Federation/U.S. Joint Coordinating Committee for Research on Fundamental Properties of Matter.

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a national security laboratory, with a mission to ensure national security and apply science and technology to the important issues of our time. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Anne Stark | LLNL
Further information:
http://www.llnl.gov/llnl/06news/NewsReleases/2004/NR-04-02-01.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>