Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Purdue chemist ’mussels’ in on secrets of natural adhesives

13.01.2004


Purdue University scientists have found the glue that saltwater mussels use to affix themselves to rocks is a subject worth sticking to, both for its pure scientific interest and for its potential applications in medicine and industry.


Jonathan Wilker of the Purdue University chemistry department examines a group of saltwater mussels. The natural glue these creatures make to anchor themselves to the sea floor has surprising chemical characteristics and could have applications in medicine and industry. (Purdue News Service photo/David Umberger)



Jonathan Wilker and his research group have discovered that the formation of mussel adhesive requires iron, a metal that has never before been found in such a biological function. While the discovery is valuable for its scientific merit, it also could impact the market as well, leading to surgical adhesives, rustproof coatings and antifouling paints to defeat barnacle adhesion.

"These animals appear to use iron in a way that has never been seen before," said Wilker, an assistant professor of chemistry in Purdue’s School of Science. "Research based on materials like this one could open up new branches of adhesives research, helping us to do things such as develop new surgical procedures and prevent barnacles from sticking to ships."


The research appears as the "feature communication" in today’s (Monday, 1/12) issue of Angewandte Chemie International Edition, a leading chemistry journal.

Mussels stick to objects such as rocks, pilings and each other. Up close, it is easy to see the dozens of tiny filaments - often referred to as its beard - that stretch from a mussel, attaching it to its home turf. A mussel has an organ called a "foot" that it extends, attaching each filament to a stationary object with a tiny dab of glue. The foot then repeats the process until it is secure enough to resist the pull of tides, currents and predators.

"It takes about five minutes for a mussel to make an adhesive plaque, and it uses 20 or more such plaques to anchor itself," Wilker said. "A mussel can easily establish itself overnight."

Key to the mussel’s tenacity is the plaque, or glue, that holds these filaments in place, and it is the chemistry of this glue that Wilker and his fellow researchers are studying. Metals such as iron are usually needed only in trace quantities for life, but Wilker’s research has demonstrated a novel role for metals: biomaterial formation.

"This is the first time a transition metal has been found to be essential for the formation of an amorphous biological material," he said. "We will be exploring other organisms that produce materials, such as barnacles, kelp and oysters, to see if there is a common theme in the synthesis of biological materials."

Wilker first became interested in this subject while on break from academic work, pursuing one of his favorite hobbies - scuba diving.

"I was looking at mussels and barnacles while diving and wondered how they stick," he said. "I checked the literature for an answer and saw that many of the details for these processes were not known."

This simple question of how mussels stick has turned into a years-long project for Wilker, occupying him since he arrived at Purdue in August of 1999. His work has uncovered a new aspect of bioadhesives, most of which are based upon proteins. Prior to curing, these protein mixtures can resemble gelatin.

"The mixture we extract from mussels has a consistency similar to gelatin," Wilker said. "When we add iron, the mussel proteins cross-link or ’cure’ and the material hardens. Other bioavailable metal ions do not appear to bring about this cross-linking. Our spectroscopic experiments show how this iron binds the proteins for cross-linking, turning them into glue."

Mussels obtain iron by filtering it directly from their surrounding water. As with other bivalves, such as oysters and scallops, mussels obtain all the nutrients they need in this fashion.

Wilker said that mussels can affix themselves to nearly any surface, including Teflon, the same substance used to make non-stick coatings for frying pans.

"This material’s ability to adhere to many surfaces and its biological origin may makeit useful in medical applications," Wilker said. "This glue could be modified for use in wound closure, nerve reconstruction, or when one might need a scaffold upon which to grow cells and build new tissue."

Another potential application could be in rustproof coatings, often used in outdoor settings such as the exteriors of buildings and cars.

"There are coatings on the market made from polymers, but none are ideal," Wilker said. "By using this glue to coat surfaces, we may have a natural rustproofing compound."

Further research also could reveal a less environmentally damaging way to keep barnacles and mussels from attaching themselves to ship hulls, where they increase drag and reduce sailing speeds.

"Copper-based paints are often used on ship bottoms to kill barnacles in their larval state and prevent them from attaching," Wilker said. "But this use of copper-based antifouling paints has harmed the marine ecosystem. Copper levels in most harbors are through the roof nowadays. Obviously this is a major environmental problem, and in the future we might be in a position to help solve it."

Wilker said he is excited to work in such a fascinating area of research early in his career, one that could possibly yield so many benefits.

"We may be able to take parts of this glue and use them to make materials that have controlled electronic, magnetic or optical properties," he said. "Mussel glues have provided insights on new aspects of materials design. This research lies at a point where chemistry, biology, engineering and materials science intersect, and that’s exciting."

This research was sponsored in part by a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Purdue Research Foundation.

Writer: Chad Boutin, (765) 494-2081, cboutin@purdue.edu
Source: Jonathan Wilker, (765) 496-3382, wilker@purdue.edu
Purdue News Service: (765) 494-2096; purduenews@purdue.edu

Chad Boutin | Purdue News
Further information:
http://news.uns.purdue.edu/html4ever/2004/040112.Wilker.mussels.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The Secret of the Rock Drawings
24.05.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie

nachricht Chemical juggling with three particles
24.05.2019 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New studies increase confidence in NASA's measure of Earth's temperature

A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing confidence that past and future research is correctly capturing rising surface temperatures.

The most complete assessment ever of statistical uncertainty within the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) data product shows that the annual values...

Im Focus: The geometry of an electron determined for the first time

Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.

The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...

Im Focus: Self-repairing batteries

UTokyo engineers develop a way to create high-capacity long-life batteries

Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...

Im Focus: Quantum Cloud Computing with Self-Check

With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.

Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...

Im Focus: Accelerating quantum technologies with materials processing at the atomic scale

'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.

However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

On Mars, sands shift to a different drum

24.05.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Piedmont Atlanta first in Georgia to offer new minimally invasive treatment for emphysema

24.05.2019 | Medical Engineering

Chemical juggling with three particles

24.05.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>