Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

There are no genes of ageing, but there is a program for it

01.09.2003


Probably, animals and human beings possess a biochemical vehicle for measuring life span. The key role in this vehicle is played by a short DNA - chronomere. The chronomeric ageing theory, based on tremendous experimental material, has been developed with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.



Early in the 70s of the 20th century, Russian researcher Alexy Olovnikov forecast existence of the chromosomes’’ end sequences - telomer, which shorten after each cell division. Aa lot of scientists believe now that telomer shortening leads to cell ageing. However, A.M. Olovnikov is convinced that telomer shortening is only the witness of ageing, and special DNA molecules – chronomeres - are responsible for ageing processes. Chronomeres are located in non-dividing cells of the cerebrum. So far, this is only a hypothesis based on the tremendous experimental material collected by Russian and foreign researches within the recent years.

The chronomere – is a copy of a tiny sector of a chromosome’s DNA. Its length makes, apparently, 10 to15 thousand pairs of nucleotides. The chronomere is covered by proteins and lies in a special cavity, like in a nest, between coils of the chromosome which gave birth to it, the chronomere being tied up with the chromosome by chemical bonds. The chronomere contains several genes, from which a special enzyme (RNA-polymerase) prints short RNA molecules. These RNAs interact with certain chromosome’s genes, influence their activity, and, consequently, affect the entire cell’s activity.


Periodically hormonal storms – the hormones bursts following one after another at certain frequency - break the chronomeres’monotonous existence. These bursts last for about ten minutes and they most probably engage the growth hormone and/or insulin-like factor. Calm periods depend on the species the organism belongs to. An adult person may have the “bursts” probably once a month (lunar rhythm) or once in two weeks. At that period, RNA- polymerase rushes along the chronomere extremely fast. Along with that, enormous mechanical stress occurs on the DNA molecule, the stress tearing up the chronomere. While the chronomere restores the break and resumes its position in the chromosome “nest”, other cellular enzymes have time to “eat it up” significantly. Thus, chronomere shortens and gradually loses the genes with the help of which it stimulates the activity of central nervous system cells which, in their turn, direct the activity of the peripheral body cells subordinated to them. Seemingly, different types of cerebral cells have chronomeres different in specificity, and in general, an entire chronomere network exists in the central nervous system. That is why the chronomeres’ shortening leads gradually to wasting away of practically all systems, organs and tissues of a multicellular organism, although this does not happen simultaneously. A large number of indications controlled by chronomeres in the course of the organism development, turn out later to be numerous indications of its ageing. It is no accident that researchers of various vertebrate and invertebrate species accordingly testify that the brain is the leading organ in the organism ageing.

Chronomeres have not been found yet, because nobody looked for them and they are hard to find. Even the Human Genome program has failed to find the small molecules, successions of which are indistinguishable from respective successions of chromosomal DNA. Nevertheless, some data exists which confirms the possibility of chronomeres’ existence. Thus, Uruguayan cytogeneticists have found unusual tiny cavities in chromosomes. Probably, these are the “nests”, from where chronomeres fell out in the course of preparation of microscopical medications.

A.M. Olovnikov is convinced that natural ageing is programmed. Ageing is based not on some ageing genes’ action, but a single universal vehicle - shortening of chronomeres. Each shortening is a click of biological clock, which measures the life span of an animal and duration of its ageing. Proceeding from possible chronomeres’ properties, A.M. Olovnikov suggests several theoretically feasible genetic engineering methods for protecting chronomeres or restoring them after damages. But there is a long way from theoretical “immortality“ through to its practical implementation. First of all, chronimeres should be discovered.

Sergey Komarov | Informnauka
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Microscope measures muscle weakness
16.11.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

nachricht Good preparation is half the digestion
16.11.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Stoffwechselforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'

16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine

Good preparation is half the digestion

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Microscope measures muscle weakness

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>