Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Yeast genomes reveal new sites of gene control

30.05.2003


Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have begun unraveling the network of genes and proteins that regulate the lives of cells. The investigators compared the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) to those of five other yeast species to identify all the locations at which molecules known as regulatory proteins attach to DNA to turn genes on and off. The study is published in the May 30 issue of the journal Science.



Among the many potential sites of gene regulation, 79 were predicted to be definitive new regulatory sites. The investigators also discovered 43 new genes and determined that 515 suspected genes are not genes at all. The findings revised the estimated number of genes in the S. cerevisiae genome from 6,331 to 5,773.

"This is the first step in understanding the gene-regulation network in a simple cell," says principal investigator Mark Johnston, Ph.D., professor of genetics and interim chair of genetics. "This work also will provide guidelines for analyzing the regulatory network of human cells, which will be a much more complex task."


Regulatory sequences are important, Johnston notes, because they are the basis of development. For example, a liver cell differs from a brain cell not because they have different genes—both cells have the same set of genes—but because of the genes they use. And that’s determined by the regulatory sequences that activate one set of genes in the liver and another set in the brain. A variety of diseases, including cancer, are caused by problems in gene regulation.

Identifying gene regulatory sites is not easy, however. These regions serve as docking sites for DNA binding proteins that turn the gene on or off. They lack the typical DNA patterns that help scientists recognize the body of the gene, which contains information about the structure of a protein.

Johnston and his colleagues compared the genomes of S. cerevisiae to five other yeast species, hypothesizing that the regions that were most alike in all six would be potential regulatory sites.

The investigators found about 8,000 of these conserved sites, about one-third of which already were known regulatory sequences. After eliminating the known sites from the total, the investigators searched for other evidence that these sites are functional, and pinpointed 79 sites located within or near genes which are excellent candidates for new regulatory sequences.

The team will is now refining the number of sites by determining which yeast regulatory proteins bind to the them.

"Now," Johnston says, "we can begin tackling the really interesting question: how a relatively small number of regulatory proteins coordinate the activity of more than 5,700 genes to maintain a healthy, growing yeast cell."


Cliften P, Sudarsanam P, Desikan A, Fulton L, Fulton B, Majors J, Waterston R, Cohen BA, Johnston M. Finding functional features in Saccharomyces genomes by phylogenetic footprinting. Science, May 30, 2003.

Funding from the National Institute of General Sciences supported this research.

Darrell E. Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://medinfo.wustl.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>