Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Enzymes which facilitate the industrial use and application of starch

16.01.2003


The cosmetic, textile, and food industries and even the construction industry use starch, the main energy reserve of plants, as a biodegradable and renewable substance for a variety of applications. To get to know the metabolism of this carbohydrate better and thus facilitate its industrial use and application, Milagros Rodríguez López proposed, in her PhD thesis, the identifying and isolating of the enzyme (or enzymes) responsible for the degradation activity of the precursor molecule for starch: ADP glucose.

This PhD work was directed by Francisco Javier Pozueta Romero at the Institute of Agrobiotechnology and Natural Resources (IARN), a centre of investigation jointly run by Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Council for University Scientific Research), the Navarre Government and Navarre Public University.

Considerable quantity of starch in plants



Currently, practically all of industry uses starch and/or its derivatives in some way or another. Starch is used, amongst other things, for the manufacture of biodegradable photographic films, in adhesives, packing materials, detergents, paints and plastics; medical care products, shampoos, creams and lotions, cleansing products and cosmetics; or in the food and drinks industries for producing thickening agents which enhance the uniformity, stability and consistency of foodstuffs.

The widespread use of starch in industry explains the numerous research projects being carried out in order to better understand the biosynthesis process of the carbohydrate in plants and of its equivalent in bacteria: glycogen. However, although many studies have been carried out on starch is formed, what substances impede its synthesis have not been investigated in any depth.

Barley leaves

The conclusion of this doctoral thesis is that, both the accumulation of starch in plants and of glycogen in bacteria is highly determined by the enzymatic activities that synthesise ADP glucose and by those that degrade it. Moreover, in the opinion of Milagros Rodríguez López, ADP glucose is not just a precursor molecule for glycogen and starch, but plays a versatile role at the point of diversification of several metabolic routes.

The authoress’ research has identified two proteins as being possibly responsible for the breaking down of ADP glucose and which, thus, on the breaking up of the ADP glucose molecule, impede the formation of starch in plants. Professor Milagros Rodríguez chose to do the tests on barley leaves as it is in this tissue that enzymatic activity is highest.
The objective then was to isolate the enzyme or enzymes responsible for this enzymatic activity.

In order to carry this out, various techniques were used such as ultracentrifuging or precipitation with ammonium sulphate in order to isolate enzyme or enzymes responsible. According to the results, there are a number of isoforms responsible for the hydrolysis of ADP glucose in the higher plants, which impede the biosynthesis of starch.

As a result of this research, two enzymes have been identified as being possibly responsible for the enzymatic activity: NPP1 (Nucleotide Phosphatase Phosphodiesterase 1) and NPP2 (Nucleotide Phosphatase Phosphodiesterase 2). Subsequently, molecular biology work was carried. Thus the gene sequences were identified and a way of confirming whether these proteins were really responsible for the enzymatic activity or not.

Iñaki Casado Redin | BasqueResearch
Further information:
http://www.unavarra.es

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Selectively Reactivating Nerve Cells to Retrieve a Memory
01.06.2020 | Universität Heidelberg

nachricht CeMM study reveals how a master regulator of gene transcription operates
01.06.2020 | CeMM Forschungszentrum für Molekulare Medizin der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Biotechnology: Triggered by light, a novel way to switch on an enzyme

In living cells, enzymes drive biochemical metabolic processes enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very ability which allows them to be used as catalysts in biotechnology, for example to create chemical products such as pharmaceutics. Researchers now identified an enzyme that, when illuminated with blue light, becomes catalytically active and initiates a reaction that was previously unknown in enzymatics. The study was published in "Nature Communications".

Enzymes: they are the central drivers for biochemical metabolic processes in every living cell, enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very...

Im Focus: New double-contrast technique picks up small tumors on MRI

Early detection of tumors is extremely important in treating cancer. A new technique developed by researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from normal tissue. The work is published May 25 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from...

Im Focus: I-call - When microimplants communicate with each other / Innovation driver digitization - "Smart Health“

Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.

When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...

Im Focus: When predictions of theoretical chemists become reality

Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.

Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...

Im Focus: Rolling into the deep

Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.

A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Dresden Nexus Conference 2020: Same Time, Virtual Format, Registration Opened

19.05.2020 | Event News

Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium AWK'21 will take place on June 10 and 11, 2021

07.04.2020 | Event News

International Coral Reef Symposium in Bremen Postponed by a Year

06.04.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Black nitrogen: Bayreuth researchers discover new high-pressure material and solve a puzzle of the periodic table

29.05.2020 | Materials Sciences

Argonne researchers create active material out of microscopic spinning particles

29.05.2020 | Materials Sciences

Smart windows that self-illuminate on rainy days

29.05.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>