Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Stem cells from whole adult bone marrow differentiated into central nervous system cells

20.12.2002


Research continues in an effort to determine if these neural cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders



Researchers at Cedars-Sinai’s Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have for the first time demonstrated that stem cells from whole adult bone marrow can be differentiated into several types of cells of the central nervous system.

A long-term objective of this research is to determine if these neural stem cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders. This capability would give physicians a renewable source of neural progenitor cells, available from a patient’s bone marrow instead of the brain, and without the ethical and tissue-rejection issues associated with the use of fetal stem cells.


Results of the study appear as the cover article of the December issue of the journal Experimental Neurology. While this study was conducted in rats, similar optimistic results have been seen in human tissue, according to senior author John S. Yu, M.D., Co-director of the Comprehensive Brain Tumor Program at the Neurosurgical Institute.

Using modified viruses as transporters, researchers were able to transfer specific genes into neural stem cells – cells that have the potential to differentiate into any of several types of cells of the central nervous system. They then confirmed that the new cells expressed the proteins that had been encoded and established that the stem cells were capable of differentiating into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendroglia.

The replacement of damaged brain cells with healthy cells cultured from stem cells is considered one of the most promising therapies in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Numerous studies are underway to develop effective methods, but finding a reliable source for the generation of neural cells for transplantation has been a challenge. The use of embryonic cells and fetal tissue raises ethical questions and the possibility of immune rejection.

Therefore, the best source of tissue for transplantation is the patient, and studies have shown that neural stem cells can be isolated, cultured and propagated from the brain tissue of adult mammals. But the removal of healthy tissue from a patient’s brain introduces another set of safety, practicality and ethical issues.

The work at Cedars-Sinai involved a several-step process. Whole bone marrow cells were cultured, leading to the generation of "spheres" that were similar to neurospheres grown from neural stem cells. The bone marrow spheres were then differentiated into both neurons and glia. These cells, with their potential for expansion in the laboratory, may be good candidates for transplantation and repair of the nervous system, according to the researchers.

Dr. Yu said other recent related studies at the Institute have shown that neural stem cells are capable of tracking brain tumor cells as they spread. This is an important finding because one of the greatest challenges in treating malignant brain tumors is the fact that tumor cells often separate from the main tumor mass and migrate to form satellites. Malignant tumors also have poorly defined borders that are enmeshed in healthy tissue, making it difficult or impossible for surgeons to remove all of the cancer without damaging normal brain.

"In our research, neural progenitor cells could clearly be seen tracking pockets of tumor cells that were migrating away from the main tumor mass," said Dr. Yu. "This clearly demonstrated the ability of neural progenitor cells to actively follow pockets of tumor cells that disseminate through the brain."

Neural stem cells were also able to track brain tissue that was injured when blood flow was restricted – the type of damage caused by ischemic stroke. Forty-eight hours after neural stem cells were injected into the arteries of rats with ischemic brain lesions, researchers found transplanted cells distributed throughout the ischemic part of the brain. The cells were readily able to cross the blood-brain barrier, the body’s natural defense to protect brain cells from toxic substances.


The bone marrow study was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant NS02232 to Dr. Yu. Peter Kabos, M.D., a post-doctoral fellow at the Institute, is the article’s first author.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is one of the largest nonprofit academic medical centers in the Western United States. For the fifth straight two-year period, it has been named Southern California’s gold standard in health care in an independent survey. Cedars-Sinai is internationally renowned for its diagnostic and treatment capabilities and its broad spectrum of programs and services, as well as breakthrough in biomedical research and superlative medical education. Named one of the 100 "Most Wired" hospitals in health care in 2001, the Medical Center ranks among the top 10 non-university hospitals in the nation for its research activities.


Sandra Van | Van Communications
Further information:
http://www.csmc.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria
22.03.2019 | Harvard University

nachricht Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack
22.03.2019 | Rice University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets

22.03.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>