Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers identify new targets for RNAs that regulate genes

08.07.2008
Tiny strands of genetic material called RNA — a chemical cousin of DNA — are emerging as major players in gene regulation, the process inside cells that drives all biology and that scientists seek to control in order to fight disease.

The idea that RNA (ribonucleic acid) is involved in activating and inhibiting genes is relatively new, and it has been unclear how RNA strands might regulate the process.

In a new study available online today and in a future issue of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, RNA experts at UT Southwestern Medical Center found that, contrary to established theories, RNA can interact with a non-gene region of DNA called a promoter region, a sequence of DNA occurring spatially in front of an actual gene. This promoter must be activated before a gene can be turned on.

“Our findings about the underlying mechanisms of RNA-activated gene expression reveal a new and unexpected target for potential drug development,” said Dr. David Corey, professor of pharmacology and biochemistry at UT Southwestern and one of the senior authors of the study.

Genes are segments of DNA housed in the nucleus of every cell, and they carry instructions for making proteins. Faulty or mutated genes lead to malfunctioning, missing or overabundant proteins, and any of those conditions can result in disease. Scientists seek to understand the mechanisms by which genes are activated, or expressed, and turned off in order to get a clearer picture of basic cell biology and also to develop medical therapies that affect gene expression.

... more about:
»DNA »Disease »Promoter »RNA »Strand »proteins

In previous studies, Dr. Corey and Dr. Bethany Janowski, assistant professor of pharmacology at UT Southwestern and a senior author of the current study, have shown that tiny strands of RNA can be used to activate certain genes in cultured cancer cells. Using strands of RNA that they manufactured in the lab, the researchers showed that the strands regulate gene expression by somehow perturbing a delicate mixture of proteins that surround DNA and control whether or not genes are activated.

Until now, however, it was not clear exactly how the synthetic RNA strands affected that mix of regulating proteins.

In the current study, also carried out in cancer cell cultures, the UT Southwestern research team discovered an unexpected target for the manufactured RNA. The RNA did not home in on the gene itself, but rather on another type of RNA produced by the cell, a so-called noncoding RNA transcript. This type of RNA is found in association with the promoter regions that occur in front of the gene. Promoter regions, when activated, act essentially as a “start” command for turning on genes.

The researchers found that their man-made RNA strand bound to the RNA transcript, which then recruited certain proteins to form an RNA-protein complex. The whole complex then bound to the promoter region, an action that could then either activate or inhibit gene expression.

“Involvement of RNA at a gene promoter is a new concept, potentially a big new concept,” Dr. Janowski said. “Interactions at gene promoters are critical for understanding disease, and our results bring a new dimension to understanding how genes can be regulated.”

Until recently, many scientists believed that proteins alone control gene expression at promoters, but Drs. Corey and Janowski’s results suggest that this assumption is not necessarily true.

“By demonstrating how small RNAs can be used to recruit proteins to gene promoters, we have provided further evidence that this phenomenon should be in the mainstream of science,” Dr. Corey said.

Although using synthetic RNA to regulate gene expression and possibly treat disease in humans is still in the future, Dr. Corey noted that the type of man-made RNA molecules employed by the UT Southwestern team are already being used in human clinical trials, so progress toward the development of gene-regulating drugs could move quickly.

Other researchers from UT Southwestern involved in the research were lead author and student research assistant Jacob Schwartz; student research assistant Scott Younger; and research associate Ngoc-Bich Nguyen. Researchers from the University of Western Ontario and ISIS Pharmaceuticals also participated.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Welch Foundation.

Amanda Siegfried | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utsouthwestern.edu

Further reports about: DNA Disease Promoter RNA Strand proteins

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Turning carbon dioxide into liquid fuel
06.08.2020 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht Tellurium makes the difference
06.08.2020 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: ScanCut project completed: laser cutting enables more intricate plug connector designs

Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT have come up with a striking new addition to contact stamping technologies in the ERDF research project ScanCut. In collaboration with industry partners from North Rhine-Westphalia, the Aachen-based team of researchers developed a hybrid manufacturing process for the laser cutting of thin-walled metal strips. This new process makes it possible to fabricate even the tiniest details of contact parts in an eco-friendly, high-precision and efficient manner.

Plug connectors are tiny and, at first glance, unremarkable – yet modern vehicles would be unable to function without them. Several thousand plug connectors...

Im Focus: New Strategy Against Osteoporosis

An international research team has found a new approach that may be able to reduce bone loss in osteoporosis and maintain bone health.

Osteoporosis is the most common age-related bone disease which affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. It is estimated that one in three women...

Im Focus: AI & single-cell genomics

New software predicts cell fate

Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions - but they do this with static snapshots only...

Im Focus: TU Graz Researchers synthesize nanoparticles tailored for special applications

“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.

Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...

Im Focus: Tailored light inspired by nature

An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.

Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2020”: The final touches for surfaces

23.07.2020 | Event News

Conference radar for cybersecurity

21.07.2020 | Event News

Contact Tracing Apps against COVID-19: German National Academy Leopoldina hosts international virtual panel discussion

07.07.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rare Earth Elements in Norwegian Fjords?

06.08.2020 | Earth Sciences

Anode material for safe batteries with a long cycle life

06.08.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Turning carbon dioxide into liquid fuel

06.08.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>