Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Need microRNA processing? Get Smad

12.06.2008
Researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center have found that Smad proteins regulate microRNA (miRNA) processing.

Understanding the role of Smad proteins enables researchers to investigate abnormal miRNA processing which is a contributing factor in development of cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The study was published online today in Nature.

"We found that Smad proteins, the signal carriers of a group of proteins that help regulate cells, promote the processing of a subset of microRNA, including miR-21. Smad proteins control the processing of miRNA from a primary copy of RNA (pri-miRNA) to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA)," explains corresponding and senior author Akiko Hata, PhD, assistant professor at Tufts University School of Medicine and a member of the biochemistry program faculty at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences. "Smad proteins move to the nucleus of the cell and interact with a specific complex, called the Drosha microprocessor complex, to promote the processing of pri-miR-21 to pre-miR-21, eventually leading to an increase in mature miR-21 levels."

"Mature miR-21 targets a tumor suppressor gene important for programmed cell death in both cancer cells and in smooth muscle cells, the cells that help our veins and arteries contract and relax," contextualizes Brandi Davis, first author, and PhD candidate in the department of biochemistry at Tufts University School of Medicine. "Abnormal miRNA processing is a contributing factor in cardiovascular disorders and cancer, yet little is known about its regulation."

... more about:
»Hata »MicroRNA »Sackler »Smad »TGFâ »miR-21 »miRNA »processing

Hata, Davis and colleagues designed a series of experiments to determine how members of a super-family of growth factors, called the transforming growth factor â (TGFâ) family, which is a group of proteins that help regulate cellular functions, can cause miRNA levels to increase. By exposing cells to members of the TGFâ family, the researchers were able to observe that, over time, levels of pre-miR-21 and mature miR-21 increased, while levels of pri-miR-21 did not change. "Since pri-miR-21 levels did not change, we concluded that the TGFâ family of growth factors doesn't begin to play a role in miRNA processing until the pri-miRNA to pre-miRNA step," explains Hata, who is also an investigator in the Molecular Cardiology Research Institute (MCRI) at Tufts Medical Center.

"Smad proteins were thought to act exclusively by regulating the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) in response to TGFâ signaling. This finding reveals a new role of Smad proteins as regulators of miRNA processing," comments Giorgio Lagna, PhD, co-author, investigator in the MCRI at Tufts Medical Center and also an assistant professor at Tufts University School of Medicine. "If we want to generate a drug that regulates signaling by TGFâ, we now have the option to target different pathways downstream of TGFâ and achieve much more specific outcomes."

MiRNAs are small gene products that regulate gene expression by interaction with mRNA. The role of mRNA in a cell is to carry the instructions for making proteins from the DNA in the nucleus to another part of the cell where the instructions are carried out and the proteins are made. "Thus, cells with abnormal miRNA levels may have abnormal protein levels, putting the organism at risk for many diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disorders. More research needs to be done to elucidate further the roles of miR-21 and other miRNA molecules," explains Hata "because better understanding of how miRNAs effect disease may lead to a clearer understanding of disease initiation and progression."

This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, both institutes of the National Institutes of Health.

Davis BN, Hilyard AC, Lagna G, Hata A. Nature. 2008 "SMAD proteins control DROSHA-mediated microRNA maturation." Advance Online Publication, June 11, 2008, doi 10.1038/nature07086

About Tufts University School of Medicine

Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts University are international leaders in innovative medical education and advanced research. The School of Medicine and the Sackler School are renowned for excellence in education in general medicine, special combined degree programs in business, health management, public health, bioengineering and international relations, as well as basic and clinical research at the cellular and molecular level. Ranked among the top in the nation, the School of Medicine is affiliated with six major teaching hospitals and more than 30 health care facilities. The Sackler School undertakes research that is consistently rated among the highest in the nation for its impact on the advancement of medical science.

Siobhan Gallagher | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.tufts.edu

Further reports about: Hata MicroRNA Sackler Smad TGFâ miR-21 miRNA processing

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>