Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists seek to defeat brain cancer by chipping away its foundation from various angles

22.04.2008
Nanomedicine, immunotherapy, stem cells and gene discovery are some of the specialty areas converging on deadly, aggressive brain tumors.

Scientists at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center’s Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute, working from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, are dissecting the complex biological events from which malignant brain tumors emerge, grow and acquire defense mechanisms that make them highly resistant to treatment.

Under the direction of neurosurgeon Keith L. Black, M.D., chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai and director of the institute, the research teams have compiled a series of “firsts” over the past decade. They recently:

· Identified underlying processes by which immune activity controls key cancer-causing genes in gliomas. As a result of these and related discoveries, the researchers will attempt to design personalized treatment plans using combinations of vaccination, chemotherapy and stem cell-blocking agents. A dendritic cell vaccine developed by Black and his colleagues and currently in a Phase II patient trial has already been found to increase length of survival when combined with chemotherapy.

· Conferred a molecular property from certain immune system cells to others, combining the best of both cells. Certain T cells are more effective than others in stimulating an immune response, but they become scarcer with age. The researchers “transferred” a beneficial molecular property to cells that do not diminish with age, improving response against tumors and entry into the brain in preclinical trials. The goal is to induce anti-tumor immunity in patients who do not respond to vaccination and increase immune strength in those who do.

· Developed molecular signatures of brain tumor stem cells to identify mechanisms by which malignant tumors renew themselves and propagate. A tumor’s unique molecular profile may eventually be used to develop an individualized treatment to block its signaling mechanisms. Previously, the Cedars-Sinai researchers isolated cancer stem cells from malignant brain tumors and documented that these cells are resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

· Generated neural stem cells from adult bone marrow and documented that they have properties similar to neural stem cells from the brain, demonstrated the ability of neural stem cells to target and track brain tumor cells even as they migrate, described a mechanism that turns on the tumor-tracking activity of stem cells, and engineered stem cells to deliver a cancer-fighting protein (TRAIL) or an immune activating protein (interleukin-12) in preclinical models.

· Found that laminin-411, a protein that is synthesized by tumor cells and deposited in newly formed tumor blood vessels, is over-expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Subsequently, the researchers found they could reduce a tumor’s ability to invade neighboring tissue by blocking the expression of laminin-411, and they identified over-expression of laminin-411 as a predictor of tumor grade and potential for recurrence, as well as patient length of survival.

· Developed a new nanotechnology-based drug delivery system precisely targeting cancer cells. Using this nanobioconjugate delivery system (named Polycefin), anti-cancer drugs in high concentration may accumulate selectively in tumor without affecting normal cells. The nanobioconjugate allows several agents to be delivered at the same time for a synergistic anti-tumor effect. A version of Polycefin designed to block the expression of laminin-411 protein prevented the formation of new tumor blood vessels and, as a result, increased survival in pre-human models of brain cancer.

· Significantly increased drug delivery across the blood-brain-tumor barrier (BTB), and extended this effort to include not only primary brain tumors but cancers metastasizing to the brain.

· Collaborated with other scientists on several studies using radioactive iodine (131I) and TM-601, a synthetic version of the venom of the giant yellow Israeli scorpion. TM-601 attaches to glioma cells and is taken into the cells permanently, making it useful for the localized delivery of radioactive iodine. A Phase III international clinical trial is planned, as is a Phase I and II study using TM-601 alone because it not only targets tumor cells but appears to inhibit tumor growth.

· Worked with colleagues at Cedars-Sinai’s Minimally Invasive Surgical Technologies Institute (MISTI) to develop an optical system (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy) that may make it possible to diagnose tumors without biopsies.

The Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute opened at Cedars-Sinai on July 1, 1997, designed by Black to concentrate the intellect, inspiration and energy of a few top scientists on the goal of discovering and defeating the complex and intricate mechanisms that support malignant brain tumors.

The institute’s centerpiece is a dendritic cell vaccine for patients who are battling these cancers, which evade and resist the immune system. First used in patient treatment in May 1998, the vaccine is intended to activate an immune response to the cancer cells. It is currently in a Phase II clinical trial.

“According to early results, we have been able to increase the two-year survival from about eight percent to 42 percent,” Black said. In one study, the median length of survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma whose treatment included the vaccine was 133 weeks – about two and a half years. A similar group of patients receiving the same level of care but not the vaccine had a median survival of only 30 weeks.

Sandy Van | Cedars-Sinai Media Relations
Further information:
http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/

Further reports about: Black Molecular Treatment Vaccine laminin-411 malignant stem cells trial

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Hopkins researchers ID neurotransmitter that helps cancers progress
26.04.2019 | Johns Hopkins Medicine

nachricht Trigger region found for absence epileptic seizures
25.04.2019 | RIKEN

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unprecedented insight into two-dimensional magnets using diamond quantum sensors

For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. They used diamond quantum sensors to determine the strength of the magnetization of individual atomic layers of the material chromium triiodide. In addition, they found a long-sought explanation for the unusual magnetic properties of the material. The journal Science has published the findings.

The use of atomically thin, two-dimensional van der Waals materials promises innovations in numerous fields in science and technology. Scientists around the...

Im Focus: Full speed ahead for SmartEEs at Automotive Interiors Expo 2019

Flexible, organic and printed electronics conquer everyday life. The forecasts for growth promise increasing markets and opportunities for the industry. In Europe, top institutions and companies are engaged in research and further development of these technologies for tomorrow's markets and applications. However, access by SMEs is difficult. The European project SmartEEs - Smart Emerging Electronics Servicing works on the establishment of a European innovation network, which supports both the access to competences as well as the support of the enterprises with the assumption of innovations and the progress up to the commercialization.

It surrounds us and almost unconsciously accompanies us through everyday life - printed electronics. It starts with smart labels or RFID tags in clothing, we...

Im Focus: Energy-saving new LED phosphor

The human eye is particularly sensitive to green, but less sensitive to blue and red. Chemists led by Hubert Huppertz at the University of Innsbruck have now developed a new red phosphor whose light is well perceived by the eye. This increases the light yield of white LEDs by around one sixth, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of lighting systems.

Light emitting diodes or LEDs are only able to produce light of a certain colour. However, white light can be created using different colour mixing processes.

Im Focus: Quantum gas turns supersolid

Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences report in Physical Review X on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. In the dysprosium gas these properties are unprecedentedly long-lived. This sets the stage for future investigations into the nature of this exotic phase of matter.

Supersolidity is a paradoxical state where the matter is both crystallized and superfluid. Predicted 50 years ago, such a counter-intuitive phase, featuring...

Im Focus: Explosion on Jupiter-sized star 10 times more powerful than ever seen on our sun

A stellar flare 10 times more powerful than anything seen on our sun has burst from an ultracool star almost the same size as Jupiter

  • Coolest and smallest star to produce a superflare found
  • Star is a tenth of the radius of our Sun
  • Researchers led by University of Warwick could only see...
All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

Fraunhofer FHR at the IEEE Radar Conference 2019 in Boston, USA

09.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Hopkins researchers ID neurotransmitter that helps cancers progress

26.04.2019 | Life Sciences

Unprecedented insight into two-dimensional magnets using diamond quantum sensors

26.04.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Liquid crystals in nanopores produce a surprisingly large negative pressure

26.04.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>